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Immune systems are the first responses before they are thought




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New research shows that the first responses to the immune system are much more specialized and that they are better worked than before. & nbsp; The discovery would lead to the development of new antibiotics, and it can also help people to experience certain types of infections.

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To defend against pathogens, our bodies are based on two different types of immunity: adaptive and innate. & Nbsp; Adaptive immunity, which is arguably two more famous, involves the use of antibodies and immune cells, which are very specific cells, including T cells and macrophages, which seek and destroy a particular pathogenic invader.

But before giving proper immune responses steps, an immune response is already in the scene. & Nbsp; The front line response uses an arsenal of molecular weapons, among which are the antimicrobial peptides (AMP). They also produce immune cells and skin cells, these AMPs absorb microbes and destroy them by breaking into cell membranes or by preventing microorganisms from operating.

We know & nbsp; AMP also kills bacteria and fungi in a test tube. It has been a very difficult task until now to study AMP in a living organism.

In their new study, Bruno Lemaitre and Mark Austin Hanson & nbsp; & eacute; cole polytechnique f & eacute; r de lausanne (EPFL) Global Health Institute Switzerland CRISPR gene editing system Remove AMP genes from fruit juices.

Fruit flies (Drosophila) & nbsp; They are not vertebrates, so they do not adapt to our immune system like our system, but they have a special immune system that uses AMPs. Lemaitre, Hanson and his colleagues have deleted 14 AMP of fruit genes one time and studied how to react to a variety of bacterial flies and fungal pathogens. They also eliminated AMP combinations, and in an experiment, 14 were deleted at the same time. & Nbsp; As a result, these AMPs & nbsp; how they work individually and together.

Fruit birds, among antimicrobials (red eyes), leave bacteria (green fluorescence) uncontrollably, preventing wild (normal antimicrobial peptides) from infecting the infectionMark Austin Hanson, EPFL

It turns out that AMPs are not considered in exchange and do not affect pathogens in the same way. The researchers found that AMPs are effective gram negatives and only particular types of mushrooms. Furthermore, according to the findings, AMPs work together to obtain synergistic antimicrobial effects and some AMPs are very specific for infectious pathogens. For example, AMP is called a fruit fly diptericin It was very specific to the very pathogen P. rettgeri (the common cause of the under-traveler in humans).

"What is really exciting is how these outcomes understand how our AMP can help fight infection," says Mark Austin Hanson.

"A copy of a specific AMP that is needed to prevent a common infection for several people may be faulty, for example, uropathogenic E. coli – and therefore they are more at risk. "

"It's a great fight against infections, but it is a great medicine to prevent it first. Here are the AMPs: it prevents the infection before ever," he explained.

"The analysis of how the AMP's AMP works helps us to manage economically important insects, to protect bones or expand mosquitoes from mosquitoes."

The discovery now & nbsp;Published in the journal Elife.

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New research shows that the first responses to the immune system are more specialized and thought ahead. The discovery would lead to the development of new antibiotics and, in addition, people will be exposed to certain types of infections.

To defend against pathogens, our bodies are based on two different types of immunity: adaptive and innate. Adaptive immunity, which is arguably two more famous, involves the use of antibodies and immune cells, which are very specific cells, including T cells and macrophages, which seek and destroy a particular pathogenic invader.

But even before the steps of intelligent immune responses, the innate immune response is already a scene. The front line response uses an arsenal of molecular weapons, among which are the antimicrobial peptides (AMP). They also produce immune cells and skin cells, these AMPs absorb microbes and destroy them by breaking into cell membranes or by preventing microorganisms from operating.

We know that AMP can capture bacteria and fungi as well in a test tube, it was very difficult to study AMP in a living organism until now.

In the new study, Bruno Lemaitre and Mark Austin Hanson used the Swiss Globe Health Institute Polytechnic Institute (EPFL), the CRISPR gene editing system to eliminate 14 AMP genes.

Fruit flies (Drosophila) They are not vertebrates, so they do not adapt our immune system like our system, but they have an innate immune system that uses AMPA. Lemaitre, Hanson and their colleagues erupted 14 birds of the AMP genes at the same time and analyzed the birds in response to different bacterial and fungal pathogens. They have also eliminated AMP combinations, eliminating a total of 14 in an experiment. As a result, these AMPs work individually and together.

Fruit birds, among antimicrobials (red eyes), leave bacteria (green fluorescence) uncontrollably, preventing wild (normal antimicrobial peptides) from infecting the infectionMark Austin Hanson, EPFL

It turns out that AMPs are not considered in exchange and do not affect pathogens in the same way. Researchers have found that AMPs are mostly negative bacterial Grams and fungal types. Furthermore, according to the findings, AMPs work together to obtain synergistic antimicrobial effects and some AMPs are very specific for infectious pathogens. For example, dipttericin AMP's fruit fly was very specific to pathogens P. rettgeri (the common cause of the under-traveler in humans).

"What's really exciting is that the results will help us know how our AMP can help fight infection," says Mark Austin Hanson.

"A copy of a specific AMP to avoid a common infection for several people might be faulty, for example, uropathogenic E. coli – and therefore they are more at risk. "

"It's a great fight against infections, but it is a great medicine to prevent it first. This is AMP, which prevents the infection before they enter it," he explained.

"The analysis of how the PMPA spill works helps us to manage economically important insects, to protect bones or prevent mosquitoes from spreading the disease."

The discoveries are now published in the newspaper Elife.


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