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2019 scientific challenges, according to the famous Nature magazine – 2013/12/27



Regulations genetic editing, review the management of biosafety in laboratories and search for new mechanisms to alleviate the effects climate changeThere are some scientific advances in 2019, & # 39; Nature & # 39; according to the prestigious magazine.

The following year, the geneticist will be exposed to the first statement by a Chinese scientist Jiankui to produce the world's first genetically modified babies. The researchers believe that Jiankui is changing the two embryonic genes created by two twin-pairs. Following the protests of the international scientific community, scientists will find potential side-effects of the process and create a framework for all future efforts to edit human DNA inheritance – ovules, sperm, or embryo – It is carried out in a responsible and regulated manner.

For the rest of the year, according to the World Health Organization, it is expected that the main "Review of the Laboratory Biosafety Manual" will be completed. Since 2004, the most widely used guidelines describe the best practices for pathogen safety assessment. The reviews will create specific risk assessments for the site and experiment and improve the management, practice and training of laboratory staff.

It's another problem that worries you Climate change In order to increase carbon emissions, 2019 could explicitly see experiments using artificial solar geoengineering to cool artificially on the planet. University of Harvard scientists are behind the Stratospheric Controlled Disruption Experiment (SCoPEx), which allows 100 grams of particles to be stratosphere to see how they disappear. These particles could crystallize the planet, reflecting some rays of the sun in space.

Genetic editing, bio-awareness and climate change, & # 39; Nature & # 39; He also enters his list Antarctic polar projects. In January, researchers from the United States and the United States will launch joint commercial missions on the continent over 70 years. For five years, the project has been a collapse of the Thwaites glacier in the coming decades, apparently unstable. The car of the ships explores the sensors that place autochthonous vessels and sensors in the mission.

Glacier Thwaites.

Glacier Thwaites.

European scientists also want to start drilling the ice hole Little Dome C In Antarctica looking for more than 1.5 million years of ice. If successful, the core will create the oldest record of weather and atmospheric conditions.

The Anglo-Saxon publication also focuses on future discoveries that may have more origins. ancient hominin species In Southeast Asia, a region with a special interest for archaeologists, a human "hobbit" was found on the Indonesian island of Flores in 2003. Excavation forces would know more about the first inhabitants of the region. Luzon island of the Philippines, although the isolation is diminutive, Flores seems similar.

Large scientific infrastructures

In astronomy, the world's largest radio telescope stands out. Outbound radio telescope 500 meters from China (FAST), fully operational and available for researchers in September. Since its inception in 2016, the mechanical telescope has detected more than 50 pulsed pulses: a compact and fast-moving star cloud. Soon, it will look for weak signals from phenomena such as rapid radio bursts and cloud of cosmic gas.

Meanwhile, astronomers will be able to build a telescope of thirty meters (TMT) in Mauna Kea in the Hawaiian mountains, a project that fights against the Canary Islands on the island of La Palma.

Indeed, in 2019 China appeared as the leading company in the world with the highest expense in research and development, adjusting its purchasing power to 2018 by 2018 until the end of 2019. Expenditures in science in China have accelerated since 2003, even though the country behind the United States is in research quality.

On the other hand, in Europe, the European Union (Horizon program) will try to get an agreement that proposes the next research funding program (1002 million euros) and will begin in 2021. It's unclear how UK researchers can participate, Brexit's doubts remain in the country.

It can also be crucial to build in 2019 International Linear Collider (ILC), Heir to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of Geneva (Switzerland). Japanese physicists proposed the project to be planned in 2012, the scientists at the LHC announced the findings of the Higgs boson, which was to explore the new tool. But the 2018 report by the Japanese government ruled out the project, a high cost (about $ 7 billion), but Japan is the only one interested in hosting the ILC. The government expects the statement that will be made before March 7.

In October 2018, all Canadian cannabis uses (the second largest nation in the country, after Uruguay) unexpectedly brought funding on research marijuana federal government and provinces. By the end of 2019, researchers from Guelphe University want to launch the first academic center dedicated to Canadian cannabis research. This examines the benefits of plant genetics and health.

Canáda uses legalized cannabis.

Canáda uses legalized cannabis.

With all the progress in 2019, subscription magazines can change their business models to adapt to the S Plan, opening up open-ended openings to academic publications, as a system that prohibits many newspapers.

Source: DPA


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