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A brief history of black holes



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In January 2018, the LIGO wave of gravitational wave predicted that remote and massive sources of controlled space time were detected: black holes coupled to deep-sea waves. Since 2015, we have seen these invisible astronomers so that they can only be detected by attraction gravitation. The history of hunting these enigmatic objects XVIII. They return to the century, but a fundamental phase occurred in a dark period of human history – World War II.


The concept of a body that sustains the light, therefore, became the first invisibility of the universe, natural philosophers John Michell and then Pierre-Simon Laplace in the eighteenth century. They thought about the century. They used Newton's gravitational laws to calculate the velocity of the light particle from the body, so that the stars were so durable that they could not escape from them. Michelle called "dark stars".

But after discovering the shape of a wave in 1801, it became apparent how the effect of the gravitational field in Newton fell, so the idea of ​​dark stars fell. The clarity of a wave of about 115 years as well as the effects of a gravitational field, Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity in 1915, and Karl Schwarzschild's solution to this problem a year later.

Schwarzschild also dismissed a critical circumference of a body, which could not cross the light: the Schwarzschild radius. This idea was similar to Michell, but now, this critical circumference can be cavernous.

It was only in 1933 that George Lemaît reveals that this impenetrability was an illusion by a remote observer. Using illustrations by Alice and Bob, according to the hypothesis, while Bob was standing up, when Alice was drunk, Bob would slow down Alice before reaching the Schwarzschild radius. Lemaître also showed that, in reality, Alice crosses the fence: Bob and Alice just experience the event differently.

In spite of this theory, at that time there was no known object of this size, even no black holes. So, no one could imagine that Michael would exist like a star like a hypothesis. In fact, I would not have dared to treat anyone seriously. Until World War II

From dark stars to black holes

On September 1, 1939, the German Nazi army invaded Poland, influenced by the beginning of the eternal war to change the history of the world. Clearly, on that day, the first black holes were published. At that time, J Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder, two physicists continuing on the rational circulation of America, were an important point in the history of black holes. This season is very strange considering the centrality of World War II in the development of black holes theory.

<a rel = "lightbox" href = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/gfx/news/2018/7-abriefhistor.jpg" title = "Schwarzchild radius. Credit: Tetra Quark / Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA">
A brief history of black holes

Schwarzchild radius. Credit: Tetra Quark / Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA

Oppenheimer had the third and final work of astrophysics. In it, he and Snyder announce a continuous contraction of a star by its gravitational field, creating a body of intense attraction. It was the first version of the modern black hole concept, a massive astronomical body that can only be perceived by its gravitational attraction.

In 1939, this idea that he still thought was very strange. Two decades should be needed until the concept is sufficiently developed, which will allow the physicist to take into account the consequences of continuous contraction by Oppenheimer. World War II was a key role in the development of the same, as the US government invested in the study of atomic bombs.

Extracted from ash

Oppenheimer, of course, was an important character in the history of black holes. After that, he became the head of the Manhattan Project, which led to the development of atomic weapons.

The police understood the investment in science to get military advantage. For this reason, there was a wide-ranging investment in the field of nuclear warfare research, nuclear physics and the development of new technologies across the board. All types of physicists were offered this kind of research, and as a consequence, cosmology and astrophysics were overlooked, especially Oppenheimer's role.

However, the decade of large-scale astronomical research was lost, as the discipline of physics evolved as a war. In fact, military physics increased astronomy. United States wars left as a center of modern physics. The number of Doctoral Doctorates increased and a new post-doctoral education tradition was established.

When the war was over, the universe's examination accelerated. He underestimated the theory of general relativity in the Renaissance. We changed the war to physics, and eventually led to the recognition of cosmology and general relativity. And that was the key to accepting and understanding black holes.

The University of Princeton became a new generation of relativity. There was a nuclear physicist, John A Wheeler, who later became known as the "black hole", had the first contact with general relativity and reorganized the work of Oppenheimer. Initially the skeptic, the closest impact relativist, the computational simulation, and the new technology in radio technology – developed during the war – became the biggest fan of Oppenheimer's predictions on September 1, 1939.

Since then, new properties and black holes have been theorized and discovered, but all of this was completed in 2015. The wave gravitational measurements generated in bold black systems were black holes.


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