World Health Organization A group of experts from around the world analyzed the scientific, ethical, social and legal challenges related to genetic publishing (both somatic and germinal) on December 14 ". The Panel will analyze the scientific articles and the possible application of technology, as well as the use of social attitudes.
"The use of these human genome editing tools (…) emphasized the need to develop standards in this field," said the WHO statement. In the coming weeks, the health agency will notify the board members, if the people invited have conflicting interests.
Argentina was the first country in the world to regulate the use of controversial technologies genetic editing experimenting with animals and vegetables. Currently, it has standards for therapy, from birth to human editing cells, biologically. but Use of genetic edition of embryos To prevent or "improve" the disease is still not permitted or prohibited.
After the birth of two twin births by Chinese genetic editing, there was talk of the technological applications, potential consequences and social control. A child born genetically in Argentina?
It was a genetic edition The day of extinction at the Cultural CenterIn Palermo district of Buenos Aires, organized by the Secretariat of Government of Science, Technology and Product Innovation, the Agro-industry Secretariat, Conicet, the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) and the National Laboratories and National Institutes. National health (ANLIS). More than one person attended 500 peopleAbout who heard about it The state of the genetic editing of the country and the world, what are its benefits and its risks for human health and the planet's living creatures, and their potential to return.
One speaker was a doctor Fabiana Arzuaga, Advanced Therapies of the Interministerial Coordination Commission (which make up the Secretaries of Science and Health of the Government) and the Commission for Research and Innovation Responsible for the Genetic Edition, which detailed the current situation of Argentina regarding the rules related to genetic editing (also called "genic editing"). This technology allows the genome of the species to be modified or deactivated quickly, accurately and inexpensively.
When speaking of genetic edema, Arzuaga differentiated the app into somatic cells and cell germs and embryos. "Modifications of the DNA sequences that separate the cells that make up the body (somatic lines) can be performed" in vivo "or" ex vivo ". In the first case, corrections of the genetic molecules will be included directly in" Ex vivo "cells are extracted by adding molecules to edit the gene and they will return to the patient somatic, "DNA changes with each patient and does not appear in future generations".
According to the exhibition Santiago Miriuka, An independent researcher at Conicet and a physician at the Cardiology Service at FLENI, currently has 26 clinical sessions with genetic sessions registered in the US Trials Clinical Platform. 35% of these trials are applications for understanding or developing therapists for tumors, and 35% for AIDS virus research. They hire 46% volunteers. In Argentina, so far, in the somatic human cell, there has been no clinical trial of genetic editing. But there are rules to regulate this type of testing.
The National Administration of Medicine and Medical Technology issued in September the regulation of genetic editing of somatic cells as advanced therapeutic therapy. "The next year, after regulating the new transplanation law, INCUCAI will provide resolutions for the use of cells and tissues as a material initiated in the development of advanced therapy medications," said Arzuaga.
Instead, Genetic editing of human germ cells is still not regulated. Genesis molecules could change the sequence of DNA sequences to cells, ovules, zygots, embryos or somatic cells. It may cause DNA changes that may be inherited by subsequent generations. As a result, in the last two weeks, the announcement of He Jiankui scientist, when the twin births were born, caused a global demand for genetic editing to prevent the liver infection. He published a report that was reviewed by his peers. The Chinese government began violating the scientific research process guidelines.
"Germ-line therapeutic change is not in Argentina or in the rest of the world. Only a few studies are controlled in the United Kingdom, after being reviewed by the Human Reproduction and Embryology Authority. In any case, with the gene edition, these embryos can be implicated in women's womb. In the United States, research on human embryos is not financed with public funds, "explained Dr. Arzuaga in Infobae in Buenos Aires, about 60 statements already in force in 60 genetic statements.
In Argentina, there is still no confirmation of the regulatory driver's control if someone wants to change the embryo. "If a scientist wants to carry out a clinical trial, a research protocol must be approved, which should be approved by an ethics committee. A physician can not experiment with genetic editing or provide patients with evidence of scientific efficacy and safety as an experimental technique, It's part of medical practice, "Arzuaga warned.
He said that although genetic editing offers a great deal of commitment to human health, "regulatory bodies must take care of preventing the abuses of this technology," and "cellular therapy with their mothers". "Efficiency or safety in recent years. Between 2007 and 2011, There was an increase in the number of clinics in Argentina (where they sold soldier families who campaigned for campaigns in campaigns), in China and in other countries, and did not benefit from the patients.
"In the legal edition of the genes, the legal vacuum does not allow the consent of the couple, and, of course, there is no need for society, so it is expected that the study of liver cells will eventually seek consensus," added Dr. Mirika.
"It is necessary to differentiate well on genetic edition, and there are current possibilities and limits," he said. Federico Pereyra-Bonnet, Researcher at the Institute of Transliter's Medicine and Biomedical Engineering, according to the Conicet and the Italian Hospital Institute of Buenos Aires. He talked about the four experiences in biomedical research in laboratories in two countries. He is led by some initiatives led by Pereyra Bonnet, who has published genetics to understand the cause of diabetes, and about 10% of them are from Argentina.
The experience is directed by another scientist Nora CalcaterraIn experimental Zebra Zebra, he uses genetic experimentation at the Rosario Biology Institute (IBR). Study Treacher Collins Syndrome, a disease that causes malformation of the face and cramps. Calcaterra is editing a fish genet with his team to create a model of this strange illness.
Groups Tomás Falzone, Conicet researcher and the Institute of Cell Biology and Neurosciences of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires, editing genes related to Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Santiago Miriúa's scientists study arithomogenic diplomas, disorders that cause heart problems to develop new treatments.
The speakers participated in ANLIS in a moderate interview, geneticist Claudia Perandones, and people's questions were answered about the edition of human genes for health. In the morning, daytime, genetic edition was offered agricultural applications. He was in charge of closing the meeting, it was Alejandro Mentaberry, Specialist in Plant Biotechnology and Head of the coordination unit of the General Secretariat of Government of Science, Technology and Product Innovation.
When interviewed InfobaeMentaberry said: "When GMOs began to develop and use, society was left out of controversy, it was a mistake, especially in Europe, but nowadays it must be a debate about genetic editing, information on society, transparent regulation and risk and good balance of benefits Next edition will be held on the genre edition meetings, a genetic edition of Germinal pending a debate, although it is still an experimental technique As technology development, the regulatory system must also be altered, taking into account the benefits and risks, such as airlines. "