It causes the great probability of a dengue occurrence There are about 500 cities in Brazil and 1,880 municipalities, & # 39; Aedes aegypti & # 39; (LIRAa), the rate of infections as fast as survey system data. They are the mosquitoes of transmission like Dengue, Zika and chikungunya, as well as yellow fever that occurs in urban contexts. The data from Liraa show that the percentage of households that care for mosquito fertility is that the cities such as Rio de Janeiro or Brasilia are among the major capitals of deng epidemic alerts. The state of arrival for the summer season is repeated over the period between December and March.
Dengea is a disease that causes the spread of viruses that are present in tropical and subtropical climate. Currently, there is no treatment against this disease and the main objective of prevention would be to develop effective vaccines according to four voltages of the serotype or dengue virus, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Currently, the Dengvaxia® vaccine (CYD-TDV) is marketed, created by the Sanofi Pasteur Laboratory and developed by the Brazilian Butantan Institute, sold to multinationals of the multinational Merck Sharp and Dohme (MSD). , or the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) Bio-Manguinhos Institute, in collaboration with the GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) pharmaceutical company.
Fiocruz Rio de Janeiro has been a biomedical research and environmental research institution since 1900, since dengue is one of the main areas of research in the world. Rafaela Bruno, Director of the Laboratory of Molecular Laboratory at the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC), one of the oldest sectors of the Fiocruz, "Aedes aegypti & # 39; It analyzes changes in the behavior of the walnut when a virus is infected, especially dengue or zikine. This biologist, in an RT interview, explains the current dangers of the epidemic of the dengue and the characteristics of the behavior of transient mosquitoes.
RT: In today's Brazilian context, what is the risk of developing a dengue epidemic?
R.B .: Once in summer, there is always a risk of epidemic. That is, rainfall and high temperatures, typical of this season, are a great combination of mosquito breeding.
& # 39; Aedes aegypti & # 39; It develops at a higher temperature faster and faster. their own Eggs face a year In a dry environment and in a warmer and warmer climate, the eggs develop and produce mosquitoes that produce "Aedes aegypti", dengue and zikin transmitters, among others.
RT: How does mosquito growth affect the spread of this virus?
R.B .: & # 39; Aedes aegypti & # 39; The dengue transmitter is the only known transmitter until now. More mosquitoes of this type are more likely to convey the infected bite and convey a person to another person.
This mosquito prefers to feed on the human blood, so the transmission is usually given from one person to another, such a mosquito carrier. However, the virus is transmitted when it is in the person's replication phase, that is, with the developed disease.
RT: What is the main risk at this time?
R.B .: Today, the biggest fear is the chikungunya virus, "Aedes aegypti & # 39; also transmitting it. Until now there has been strong violence, but there are more cases of chikungunya than in previous years. Some groups are investigating why at one time the virus stops circulating or giving to others, but we do not know the exact reasons so far.
Concerning Chikungunya's concern, dengue remains one of the most dangerous viruses all year long. In the summer, there is a higher incidence, but the infection can occur at any time of the year because of four serotypes, it can always be in any region of the country.
RT: Where does the infection cycle begin?
R.B .: It will be back for a long time. These infections began in wild environments, viruses were transmitted by other insects and subsequently urbanized. & # 39; Aedes aegypti & # 39; It only participates in the urban cycle, when these viruses are fully installed, especially dengue.
RT: How did these viruses come from the desert to the cities?
R.B .: Dengea, zika, chikungunya or yellow fever were found in monkeys, but humans had a wild presence. How did the first people get it? Data is variable and inaccurate It depends on a lot of places.
With black silk we know that the transmission of the forest area occurs through the genera of the "Sabethes" or "Haemagogus" genus, but we do not have a specific discovery of dengue, zika or chikungunya viruses. In the context of the city, all these viruses & # 39; Aedes aegypti & # 39; are transmitted. .
RT: One of the main goals of your research team & # 39; Aedes aegypti & # 39; It is a behavior analysis. What are the main findings of your studies?
R.B .: When "Aedes aegypti" flies with mosquitoes, it usually has a shorter life, less egg, but becomes more active and increases the ability to move. On the other hand, the mosquitoes that hire the Zika virus are slower, the less it moves, but it does not like an infected mosquito. Additionally, the smallest displacement capacity of infected mosquitoes in Zika explains why in many cases of infections there are same families, because mosquitoes are placed at a small distance from the time that they feed food.
RT: What is the duration of the life cycle of the "Aedes aegypti" mosque? What are the mutation options seen in your research?
R.B .: Life expectancy is divided into 15 to 20 calendar days, until the mosquitoes grow in the laboratory up to 45 days. Mutations that occur in these mosquitoes are naturally occurring and cause some effects that cause a long time. In the nature, mosquito populations differ, depending on a phenomenon called "interaction of the parasitic vector", which can be more vulnerable to viruses.
This is sometimes because the mosquito genotype is not compatible with the genotype of the virus. Depending on the Brazilian region, there are different mosquito populations due to environmental pressure. In our genetic analysis, we can withstand a population of a certain region that can circulate more than one other, so that the effect of infections can be changed from one area to another.
RT: Dengea epidemic level is a more important risk in today's and Brazil's known, Chikungunya is old but not so common, and Zika is the newest, even threatening. What are the three viruses that transmit the same mosquito?
R.B .: Dengue virginity is more dangerous because of the four causes of dengue: dengue 1, dengue 2, dengue 3, and dengea 4. This is when this sorotype is immunized against this specific, but if a different sorotipe is circulating, the new person will face the dengue. In the case of Zika and Chikunguny, there is only one serotype, so that the infected person is definitely immunized.
RT: What happened about Brazil in the last three years about the appearance of Zika?
R.B .: Zika was the newest entry in the country. In 2015, the first cases began to appear, especially in the northwest of the country, but the first suspicion of Zika was found in October in October, they hired viruses after microcephaly cases on mother's babies. There is a hypothesis that the virus has arrived During the Confederations Cup; Another point was that French troops arrived in a French championship competition and the first accidents occurred. When Zika arrived in Brazil, nobody protected him, which caused a great catastrophe. It spread rapidly and many people were infected, but nowadays, many tendencies are reduced, because many people have already been immunized.
RT: Based on your research, what are the mechanisms to combat this mosquito species and to prevent infections?
R.B .: The most effective is to avoid places where you can play "Aedes aegypti", that is, to prevent standing feet with eggs from mosquitoes. These are eggs almost invisible to the eye and, in addition, women are placed in dark places. For this reason, avoiding the right places to get eggs incubated, it is the most effective dish from a lid of a basket basket.
RT: How does the public power of Brazil affect the dengue epidemic?
R.B .: Research and information on mosquito reproduction is working together to avoid it. Although the public authorities have basic sanitation and rubbish collection, this mosquito is only reproduced in clean water. The mosquitoes are breeding sites that occur in their homes, and thereafter each mosquito moves at a radius of about 300 meters. Therefore, Prevention is a supportive responsibilityThe public authorities, research organizations and the city's inhabitants are based on current situations of dengue epidemics.
RT: Following these practices would the dengue be able to eradicate the virus?
R.B .: In the short term, at least not. With collective work and collective effort, we greatly reduce the population of mosquitoes, which is the only way to spread the deng virus.
Together with the population's information strategy, there is a complementary complement to the complementary fight for the release of modified mosquitoes. That is, the mosquitoes that can be made with transgenic males, when crossed with wild females, creates a progenitor that dies and does not live. Other techniques release mosquitoes with a bacterium called "Wolbachia", which prevents the virus from injuring the virus.
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