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I'm dozens of divine explorers of the North Volcanoes



When the night sky came as a childhood and I began to wonder, my journey began to see what happens when a diving diver in a ship embarked in a boat.

At the age of 15, it was clear that I was already too big to take the small first space capsules as an astronaut. My vision changed to space, through documentaries of Jacques Cousteau, details of the lighthouse maps and historical diving on the voluminous parts of the ship's volcanoes.

At university, I joined the wonders of geology and how the lighthouse spread when the tectonic plate theory began to develop. I hung up.

After obtaining my doctor's degree, my graduate Dan Fornari contacted scientists at the Pacific Ocean and the Atmospheric Administration, who used Alvin (Human Busy Vehicles) to study Geology of the Galápagos Rift. Hydrothermal seas and animal communities were discovered at the end of the 1970s. They needed a "tough rock" with the geologist in the background of marine geology, and I was surprised at the expedition for Acapulco. A tectonic plate took me to an almost cruise when I delayed the 1985 earthquake in Mexico City.

My first Alvin was plunged into the murmur of active desert: horrific, fascinating, fascinating, exhausting, and the most exciting event in my life at that point. Although the Alvin riders did a great deal of cross training, the fear of the stranger was tightening up and we were overwhelmed.

What will I do? How dangerous is it really? Do I really protect the depth of the closed sphere closed? What is the space for two other eight hours? Do I remember everything I need to do? Do I dare to drink coffee? I was bored, I knew before we were emerging – my adrenaline level still high.

The results from the successful cruise and research trips began in my career when some geologists work and analyze the volcanoes in the middle of the ocean. From this diving series in 1985, I've been doing some 40 underwater diving Alvin within a depth of about 13,000 meters, until it reaches Alvin's abilities limit. Each swimming pool usually lasts for six hours at the bottom, giving it a total of about 10 days at the bottom of the ocean – as "aquanaut".

Preparing to dive into the depths

The typical preparation of my plungers really begins in the planning stages of a cruise, soon financed an expedition and a specific oceanographic vessel is scheduled. Atlantis research vessel is specially equipped for the Alvin host and dive into several deep-sea diving vehicles. Almost all of the cruises last one month, with 20 to 25 years in advance. A few days before it was immersed, the researchers discussed the diving maps, discuss areas for specific samples and measurements.

Before nightmares, scientists are packing a bag (usually in their headphones), full of clothing and recording equipment. Usually, they wear hats, pants, sweaters and socks, placed on the bottom, quickly rising the skin and making it cold in the depths of the ice sea. I try to get a night break because the typical 8-hour diving can be mentally and physically tiring.

Usually, I do not eat and drink too much in the morning of dive, and I spend a lot of time before squeezing "ball" like the inner sphere. At 8, Alvin has been checked, it is wheeled with charge and three aquanes are ready to fit into the ring and adapt to the location.

Alvin's titanium framework, in December 2018, during the uprising of the Eastern Pacific, in the middle of the pilot and two scientists in electronics.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, National Sustainable Agriculture Fund and National Science Foundation
When Michael Perfit was immersed in Alvin, he began to investigate the volcanic lighthouse.
Molly Anderson, CC BY-ND

The rider is sitting directly in the middle of the ball, my colleague and I get into the middle of the electronics under the rails. There's not enough space to spread the legs completely. Our hollow shutter is closed and closed, air and water are tight, keeping pressure at the atmospheric pressure.

Carbon dioxide purifying plants are rotating, regulating the regulator that absorbs the air completely breathing air and absorbing additional oxygen. At less than 6 meters high, I will stay where I am piled up, but there is only one. Not more than stretching my legs, as I usually kneel down in my hand, with notes on sideways, side bows or notes.

Alvin Atlantis launches the research boat, in the last diving series in the northeast Pacific Ocean.
Michael Perfit, CC BY-ND

Alvin goes back and forth when the spine comes out and starts on the ocean. Then, the comfortable sound and the sensation of our ocean are covered by five freshwater seawater. We have seen pools we hide under the skin to check if our equipment is still there to destroy the ship's recovery line.

After executing various equipment and safety tests, we will start to slow down. For a minute, we descend to 110 m and reach 8,000 feet. The bright glass shines brightly with the small bubbles scattered around Alvin, because it forces us to sink when we release the air. The sound of the ship is rapidly disappearing and the swings on the surface waves remain. Compared to all Atlantis movements and noise, the interior of Alvin is pleasant and relaxing, with bass and music in the air, selected by a rider, except in the background.

As we continue downward, the external light begins to fade rapidly, at first glance it becomes green, slowly dark blue. Few red readings illuminate the interior of the light. We maintain Alvin outer lights to save the battery needed to propel it. After 10 minutes, the depth of more than 600 meters is hardly clear and hundreds of bright bioluminescent organisms pass through portholes. Magic magic light reminds me of the young night sky.

For three and a half hours, we have a 3,300 meter long "midnight area", where the light does not penetrate and the brighter and more dramatic green phosphorus is green. For the time being, I feel comfortable, but it's never been working on the sea to see what we can see.

Science in marine science

When they approach the shore, we turn on the lights of Alvin and we pilfer the pilot when we see it below. For me, it's one of the most exciting and exciting parts of dive, he does not know what it will be. Very slowly, the floor of the ocean's lava and sediment floor becomes clear.

In most of my immersion, we are away from remote and hydrometro-actively active areas due to security reasons. These places are covered by different types of lava flows: the sediments are made of iron, lobed and veneer. The nearest river area, the areas that fill the lava lakes, are flooded and then drained and collapsed. Some areas have hundreds of tall foot-and-mouth wires, floods or rising walls of hundreds of meters, driven by tectonic forces.

In some of the most volcanically active areas, I found that white coats that live on warm microbes that cover black lava flows similar to cotton. Sometimes parts of them are switched to hot water currents that create cracks and furnaces. I have seen black boxes, rich sulfur, usually hydrothermal that surround tubeworms, crabs, clams, mussels, shrimp and unusual fish. Survival creatures of more than one thousand meters below the surface.

The black stream on the hydrothermal fireplace in the Middle East is 21 degrees tall. The recording temperature test hangs on the left and samples of titanium fluids can be seen at the bottom right.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and National Science Foundation

For the last six hours, I am going to pilot the pilot to go and measure or measure Alvin's high-speed, robust but powerful hydraulic arms. The digital cameras and video cameras mounted in the external frame of Alvin document recording mini-notes recorded and recorded in the recorded depths. It's a long time and we rarely do everything we can to make when we get riders, our batteries are still low, and weighing iron weighs up to a hundred pounds to keep track of our traffic.

Even if we have tight clothes, it is quite cold at the end of a dive, the blankets are extruded, and usually I combine gourmet butter and jelly sandwiches. The brightness of the light announces the approaching surface and I always hope that the seas have been quiet, or else Albozak needs to be restored.

Once Atlantis and the hatchway are open, my lungs are a relief for warm air and you can stretch my legs again. Recovery watching, congratulating divers, especially scuba diving and tracking samples that we've reminded scientists is an afternoon event.

Michael Perfit's observation describes Atlantis scientists during their circulation during Alvin's recovery.
Daniel Fornari, CC BY-ND

Over 45 years ago I have been researching marine geological features, and I'm still excited about being involved in Alvin. We still continue to watch samples, photos, shootings and observations, responding to more than 60% of Earth's crust questions. How can the sea volcano and what should be done? Where and why do deep sea geysers, also called hydrothermal fluids? And how do you live in these barren environments?

Even if many undeveloped sub-robots are deeper in deeper time, scientists who do not see the vehicles on remote-mode video cameras can not compare at the bottom and see them in three dimensions.


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