It's a fake classic. In addition, it is discriminatory: "a lung tumor? Certainly it all smoked …!" Who has not heard such sentences? As it turns out, it refuses to burn 25% of lung cancer (yes, in the plural, if not the same). In that group that did not touch tobacco, it represents the seventh cause of death.
"It is common among people who use dry wood combustion in our countries to diagnose certain lung cancer," said the oncologist. Luis Corrales, At the Costa Rican Cancer Research and Management Center. Radiation also affects the inhalation of chemicals and hydrocarbons, and amiant (asbestos). "Corrales Pfizer was one of the academics for journalists on pulmonary cancer in Buenos Aires, responsible for pancreatic and disease-related problems in the region, because cancer is still cancer.
In this harsh environment, good news is provided: the available treatments are given in many cases, depending on the cancer treatment, more time and better quality of life.
Let's justify: smoking is not the only cause, but avoiding the main reason. It was clear in the 1950s. Oncogenesis is not as big as tobacco itself, but it is the substance that emits cells, additives and paper emulsions, in the case of mutations that produce cells (in this case, the lung, but not the only organic effect), "said Corrales.
"These mutations are capable of promoting uncontrolled cell division and tumor development," he said. And one of the first regional data is ours: among Latinos, the death rate is higher.
But thanks to molecular biology, he added, we know that smoking is an isolated disease that is much more complex and causes genetic changes.
"We can classify lung cancer in two major groups: the first is the small cellular cells (SCLC), which are more frequent in men, with very high levels of smoking and growth, between 15% and 20% of cases".
"These were just a few years of surgery and chemotherapy, but a great deal of progress has been made in immunotherapy in the process approved by the National Administration of Medicine, Food and Technology (ANMAT) in our country. Diego Kaen, Head of Oncology at the School of the National University of La Rioja and the Clinic, to be able to understand the technical issues of molecular study.
"Other 80%, in non-small cells (Cpcnp), adenocarcinoma (85% of cases) and others. Well, 35% of adenocarcinoma patients are not smokers," stressed Corrales. 4% of these tumors develop under 40 years of age.
The most difficult thing is early diagnosis; In fact, lung cancer is called a "silent murderer", because symptoms are similar to other respiratory diseases (cough over three weeks or longer, chest pain, respiratory distress, flu-like conditions, improved for a long time, even antibiotics, nose and blood) and the consultation reaches a long time. For this reason, it is important, before the suspicion, medical control: I hope that it is the only rebellious bronchitis! (See "X-rays …").
If the tumors are detected and without surgery, they can be treated and heated without extending them. But they are minorities (only 10%): as reported In Kaen, most cases in Argentina have been detected in Phase III, it is not feasible.
"But that does not mean that there is no answer. Until 2014, when the doors to the new paradigm were opened, it was only chemotherapy." Now, molecular analysis of tumors makes it possible to formulate formulated therapies capable of improving the survival of patients with metastatic disease, "he said.
What is it that directly involves the heart of the tumor, or helping the immune system to recognize cancer cells? Thus, instead of attacking cells that are rapidly reproducing cells, healthy people, like "chemotherapy," can block growth and spread, due to specific molecules called "molecular targets". They activate them, explained Kaen.
"Before getting started, knowing and understanding the characteristics of different tumors can be much more effective," said Corrales. While it is not cured, in many cases the disease can be controlled for many years (in the 80s and treatment was not tried) to have less symptoms and have a good quality of life.
Knowing the tumors means, first and foremost, knowing what type of tumor is and what kind of relationship they are associated with. Keep in mind that a tumor is not homogeneous, on the one hand, and the other one is mutated, so that it is necessary to control it in the treatment, which is still effective (see: "Liquid biopsy"). It's a good thing, in many cases, if a treatment stops, others will replace it.
"One of the most common mutations is EGFR, which is a protein that helps to grow and divide over the cell surface. When EGFR changes, the cells grow faster," added Corrales. In these cases (women more often, under-40s and non-smokers), EGFR inhibitors can manage and block the growth of cell growth. "
"In Argentina, EGFR mutation is between 15% and 20% of this type of cancer," said Kaen. And one of the biggest benefits of these therapies is tablets, at home and in normal life. "
Another 5% of Cpcnp is detected by ALK gene mutation; Therefore, it creates a protein that hyper-stimulates the growth of malignant cells. Available treatments (also tablets) can be used, although instead of chemo, improve the quality of life.
Another new alternative is immunotherapy. In normal cell processes, T cells (white blood type) are identified and eliminated by cell tumors. Our bodies do it all the time. But they learned the system.
"Imagine those who mask the tumor cells, and so the lymphocytes are relaxed. It blocks the treatment of the" cancer mask "and the tumor cell reveals the immune system," said Corrales.
Substances that are produced by the body or in the laboratory are used, such as monoclonal antibodies to strengthen the immune system and stop or diminish the growth of cancer cells or spread to other parts of the body (see: "Immunotherapy").
> Women's vision | The second cause of death in the world
In general, the female probability of developing lung cancer, in general, on the first day of the 17th, is changing the number of women and increasing the illness. In Argentina, and according to the National Cancer Institute (INC), the prevalence of illness is much higher in men (68.45% and 31.55% for women), but it is particularly worrying for women to increase this type of cancer. In general, it is the most common cause of death amongst them, especially the most commonly used for smoking. On the other hand, women appear to have increased the risk of tumor to stop burning again and again.
> Immunotherapy | We will tell you which monocular antibodies and how they work
They are molecules produced in the laboratory that work as a substitute for antibodies and are able to improve or improve the immune system attack on cancer cells. They must be linked to antigens that are more frequent on cancer cells, than the healthiest. Several types of antibodies can detect cancer cells, destroy the muscles, block their growth or attack them. It also blocks the immune system's inhibitors and can take radiation treatment and chemotherapy to the tumor cell. They are internal administrations and often depend on cancer and medication.
> X-rays have not arrived | If you can not leave Pucho, request at least controls "Unfortunately, the massive projection strategy is not possible to detect the illness of people without symptoms," confirms Diego Kaen. but at least the smokers must ask their family physician to control it. "Not all control is usable:" it proves that the radio does not work. We need a low-density special tomography, "he added, adding people with a family history of the risk populations. Smoking cessation causes precautions and reduces the risk, but over the years it continues to be important, so control should be a rule , even though it does not burn anymore.