Denisova Cave In southern Siberia Neanderthals and Denisovans have been living for thousands of years, but they remain uncertain about their stay. Some new researches explain the history of human occupation in the human world, including those who lived there and that were hanging together with the two species at that time.
Nowadays, two papers published by Nature magazine crafted the Denisov cave to update Neanderthals and Denisovans. According to the new study, Denisovans-Neanderthals' sister species-that is, the beginning of the cave as long as the Neanderthals-entered the cave 287,000 years earlier. The Neanderthals arrived in the area some 140,000 years ago, perhaps Denisov has been carrying out thousands of years of space. Neanderthals and Denisovans were more evidence that they began to interact with each other, which happened in Denisov.
Archaeologists and paleontologists have been carefully cared for in the cave of Denisova for the last 40 years, throwing several animals and neanderthal bones. But a real bulb was found in 2010 in a stone bone from the most unknown human species, called Denisovans. Genetic analysis suggests that Denisovans are related to Neanderthal, but all of this remains a mystery, such as on the stage and when they died.
The cave Denisova, located on the foothills of the Upper Altai mountain in Siberia, is not only the Denisov but the Neanderthal, as well as its ability to understand. And perhaps our species, Homo sapiens-And the cave, perhaps surprisingly, has not shown that only one modern-day anatomical man exists. Neanderthals and Denisovans, however, Denisova Cave was a great protection for the vast areas of that time.
This is a brutal season. Not talking about a thousand years, here or a thousand years. Rather, we are occupying hundreds of thousands of years. To complete a time line of action, the cave was occupied for the first time and proved tough, partly because of the large cave size and complex sediment layers. Cave Stratigraphy is a period of the Middle Palaeolithic Siberian (from 340,000 to 45,000 years ago) and the Upper Paleolithic Period (45,000 to 40,000 years ago).
In fact, scientists can also return 50 million years ago. This cave has been much longer, using the most reliable dating method, and sending unconventional or controversial timeline.
To overcome these barriers and barriers, a group of multidisciplinary researchers from all over the world, such as Russia, the United Kingdom, Australia, Germany and Canada, analyzed Denisova's bones and artifacts in the last five years. The researchers used multi-lingual techniques, both well-established and cutting-edge, as well as statistical techniques that gathered thousands of elements in the site to meet with more precision and accuracy in Denisova's human occupation day.
The first study conducted by Zenobia Jacobs and Richard Roberts at the University of Wollongong in Australia presented new data for sediment deposits in Denisova cave. Today, these deposits, and, consequently, within bones and artifacts, researchers use a new technique called "accelerated lightening". Scientists have a light sunscreen when they say quartz, for example, a mineral ulcer. The dates made were given to 103 cubes for sediment deposits of 280 thousand years.
The results of this work showed Denisovans occupied a cave about 287,000 years ago and lived in the cave for 55,000 years. Neanderthals reached caves of 193,000 years and lived about 97,000 years ago about 96,000 years ago. 27 animals, including mammals and fishes, also studied 72 plant species, which highlighted the varying climatic climate in thousands of years of cave occupation. Sometimes, the region was quite warm, forests with large tree-lined trees, but sometimes it was a weak and destructive Tundra-Estepa habitat.
Jacobs and Roberts' important implications suggest that Denisovans and Neanderthals meet in the cave. Now, it is possible that the two species did not share space, but the most recent evidence suggested. Last year's scientists' meetings, a group of scientists, some of them new authors of this research, found evidence of a hybrid, ancient Homoine archaic, Denisova II, inhabited by a 90,000-year-old cave. Denisovan father and mother of Neanderthal.
Along with some lines of research, this evidence suggests two species that come together periodically, and this isolated case is not just.
The second research, led by Katerina Douka under the leadership of the Max Planck Institute of Humanities in Human History in Germany, dates back to Neanderthal and Denisovan fossils, where they found teeth hanging and bone points. Douka's team uses multiple techniques directly and directly to thousands of bone fragments and artifacts, such as radio-carbon dates and uranium-series dates, which take advantage of known radioactive decay rates.
"This is the first time that the age of the cave and its archaeological content is sufficiently assigned." Tom Higham, an Oxford University archaeologist and new author of the new study, said in a statement.
The oldest fossil Denisovan suggests that this group was located on the site that existed 195,000 years ago, and the Neanderthal fossils, including Denisova II, now range from 80,000 to 140,000. The youngest Denisovan fossil was between 52,000 and 76,000.
"Douka is a fascinating role, knowing that the Neanderthals and Denisovans used the Denisov cave, and that both teams came together, but we did not know how long they used cave or cave paintings in each cave," said Sharon Browning, who did not take part in the new investigation A research professor at the Washington University Biostatistics Department, Gizmodo said.
Many of the days spent in Douka paper have been a great margin of error due to complex stratigraphy (for example, some elements cause the stratigraphic layers to fall) and beyond the available data. But there is little uncertainty about "estimates" and visits made before or after the group, but they did not detect any trace, "Browning said," these are still the time to test the availability model. "
Artifacts found in this site, such as bone points, toothpastes and pendants were between 49,000 and 43,000 years old. Now, Ekkaia are the oldest ancient objects that are visible in the north, according to Douka. There are problems, the dates have been the last evidence of human occupation for thousands of years in the cave.
"According to current archaeological evidence, they are associated with supposedly Denisov residents", the authors passed the study. "It is not possible today to decide whether or not anatomically modern human beings participate in their production, as evidence of ancient anti-fossil and ancient genera has not yet been identified in the Altai region."
Because Denisovans were serious manufacturers of these items, the simplest explanation was that Neanderthals have been in the cave for a long time, and there is no modern reflection on them, according to the new study. But the anthropologist Chris Stringer of the Natural History of the United Kingdom is not convinced that these elements were in Denisovans.
"My money would be early modern humans, perhaps in other places, such as Ust & # 39; -Ishim Siberia, but Douka's authors, but surprisingly, argue that Denisov is responsible, Denisovans never knew it. though, "said Stringer Gizmodo. "Only the more discoveries and more research can resolve this question properly."
Stringer said he liked two new studies that "they would bring last-minute dating techniques to stratigraphy, paleo-eclimatic and human fossils," but said that there were many solutions. There is a possibility, for example, that some caves, although they were not cattle, were harbored by humans, said, or their bones had changed dramatically in their original, pleasant place at birth.
"But on the face, Denisova has been able to settle for at least 250,000 years, at about 300,000 years ago, about 50,000 years ago, even with Neanderthals." Stringer. "It seems that occupations are apparent in generations, the cave of Denisova was probably two of those populations that could be in the northern border of occupation.
In fact, both Neanderthals and Denisovans were both at times, human beings hamper the relationship with archeology elements, perhaps the DNA of sediment DNA studies will help their cave's presence. "
These uncertainties and large margins of error are undoubtedly frustrating, but these two papers help to keep the ambiguity far away. Over time, we are constantly making a clearer image of the archaic human occupation of Denisova cave. And damn it, it's wonderful.[Nature, Nature]