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Ten great science accounts for 2018

In January 2018, interest in science and the environment was triggered. Highlights of the climate science warnings are about the dangers of temperatures over 1.5C, a 20-kilometer-wide liquid water for the discovery of Marsen. It was a memorable year.

Here are some of the most spectacular stories of 2018.

A "safe" limit for heating

The growth of 2C global temperatures at the end of this century approached the changing climate. The researchers argued that maintaining this limit was necessary to prevent adverse effects of global warming.

But some increase 1.5C lower target. In October, climate sciences released an important report on what would add a rising temperature to that narrower limit.

This would reduce millions of people to reduce the number of people living in the ocean when there are less endangered species and a shortage of water.

However, it would also be very expensive, and it needs "fast, great and unprecedented changes for society". The report does not ask the governments what they are doing, but it raises many approaches, such as greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energies and lifestyle changes and dietary changes.

Other climate change stories from 2018

First animals

Currently, there are about one million live animal species that are incredibly different, from a giant whale from the blue ocean, mixed with ground under our feet. But the early evolution of the ancestors of his ancestors is full of mystery.

In the first hunting of most animals, it has become an enigmatic group of lifestyles, known as Ediacaran biota, more than 500 million years ago. They were the first complex organisms on the ground.

But the position of the tree of life is difficult to decipher. These strange creatures have been classified as semi-household among liquids, mushrooms, and plants and animals.

In September, scientists cut Cholesterol molecules through fossil fuels called Ediacaran fossils DickinsoniaSimilar to the flat jellyfish. Cholesterol is one of the hallmarks of the living animal, which clearly shows Ediacaran as an animal biota.

Other 2013 paleontological stories

Giant plastic berg

The world's plastic waste crisis was one of the major issues of 2018. BBC's Blue Planet 2 series highlighted the problem presented by David Attenborough. The destruction of ocean and sea life was amazing. plastic

In April, our scientist, editor, David Shukman, visited Indonesia to explain the rivers and channels of Bandung to a morass of colonized plastic waste on the Java island of Indonesia. The crisis was so sharp that the army was called to clean bottles, bags and a large plastic plastic bin.

It is worrying that the problem is worse. In March, a report commissioned by the UK government suggested that the ocean's plastic number could not triple in ten years.

Other 2018 waste plastic stories

Ghost particles busters

Artworks: Blazars are massive black holes

Neutrinos are some basic blocks of the universe. These subatomic particles deviate more or less around the cosmos, in very little interaction. In fact, the only part of the neutrino can pass light year (about 10 billion km) without touching a single atom.

Many of the neutrinos we find on Earth come from the Sun or Earth's atmosphere. The origin of an ultra-high-energy neutrino group was mysterious this year. In July, an international group drew a distant galaxy with a "ray" of particles directly on the ground.

This type of galaxy is called blazar. It has an intense box created by the central and massive black masses. As the matter falls into the pit, particles loaded particles emerge dramatically, and these galaxies convert into large particle accelerators.

The Antarctic IceCube experiment includes data on these ultra-high neutrino neutrinos for six years, but was first able to combine researchers with sky sources.

Other stories about 2018 astronomy

Mars and moon

The proposed lake is below the star of the Mars star

We know that there is an ice line with water, and there are occasional possible fluid flow signals. But in July, a group of scientists discovered a 20 km wide lake seated beneath the surface of the polar ice of the planet.

The curiosity of the NASA is analyzing the traces of ancient lake beds, but it is the first symbol of the current body of the water. An exciting result was because the scientists had hunted down the signs of liquid water that had been flooded for years.

"We are not close to actually detecting life," said Manish Patel at the University of the Open University of the United Kingdom, but this finds a place to look at Marsi. "

Mars was not the only head of the cosmic body to scare the headlines. In August, the researchers published what they said was the definitive evidence of the ice on the surface of the moon.

Data from the Chandrayaan-1 Spaceship in India suggests the presence of ice deposits in the North and South Poles. This ancient water can be used as a resource for future human missions to the Moon.

Other planetary science histories from 2018

What happened to builders of Stonehenge?

The Stonehenge builder replaced the Beaker towns largely, but kept pockets

The field of old DNA – to extract and analyze genetic material generated by many dead people – has given us ideas about the unprecedented past. The astounding results of 2018 were replaced by former British people in massive migration around the continent of around 5000 years.

When the British Neoliths built Stonehenge boulders, people from Beaker were well-known. That is why only 90% of the British gene pools are replaced by hundreds of years. Why has this happened to be unknown? But the disease, hunger and conflict are all potential candidates.

In a study released in 2018, the researchers demonstrated that 50,000 bone fragments from Russia were half a Denisovan and a Middle Neanderthal girl. Before the species of Denisovans and Neanderthals, there were different human species that inhabited Eurasia. Homo sapiens – Africa on the left.

Other old DNA stories from 2018

Frozen Impact

Viewpoint: half-circular of ice margin explains the crater sketches

In November, the scientist investigated what influenced the iceberg in Greenland. 31 kilometers in diameter scientists analyzed the radio radius images.

The second time an iron asteroid with a 12,000 to three million year-old was 1.5 km wide. Some researchers have doubts about what has been done so far. But it has raised some intriguing options, including a potential for a strong freezing of frost, including a rise in climate warming from the height of the Earth's final ice age.

There is a long hypothesis that due to the drowsiness of the temperature, the sun's rays have affected waste generated in the atmosphere and from forests caused by smoke and ash. If more work confirms that the crater's age is close to the bottom of the age group, this old argument may be of interest again.

Other land science stories from 2018:

Older demolition

Israel's Mislya cave jawbone 185,000 years ago

According to various lines of evidence, the ancestors of human beings beyond Africa left a continent 60,000 years past. But there are some precursors of modern humans (Homo sapiens) Reasons outside Africa.

In January, scientists killed a Israeli gesture of modern man, thousands of years ago, earlier than 185,000 years ago in Israel. The learned wisdom suggests that earlier these cyclists did not offer continuous continual humans in Eurasia.

However, many migrants are considered to be much larger than African migration images. These pioneers lived together with other human species, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans. But mystery remains the genetic syntax of people who are not alive today.

From other human evolution stories to 2018

Martial Rocks

Works of art: Martian rock and soil samples on land-based laboratories

After years of controversy and a series of fake outbreaks, the European space agencies were the first to accelerate the Spanish ancestors.

In April, NASA and Esa have signed a letter of intent to bring the "first trip" to another planet.

Scientists would allow Martian to answer questions about key facts about history, whether it was hosting the planet once or not. However, geologists will allow a detailed chronology of specific events in Martian history.

United States missions in recent decades have greatly helped Red Planets understand in it, but there are massive limitations of experiments that are included in the expenses utilized for Mars.

Computer scientists will not have any comparisons with Martian rock and soil research, using scientific tools available in land-based laboratories.

Other space exploration stories from 2018

Plastic in our waters

Some parts are very small

Plastic waste is becoming more and more in our everyday life, and our drinking water spreads. Orb Media's journalism research found an average of 10 liters of plastic particles in the main bottled water brands.

In its largest type of research, 250 bottles purchased in nine countries were analyzed. Almost all of them were plastic particles.

Our far north planet is often a desert. But this year, researchers have expressed concern about the large concentrations built on the Arctic sea ice plastic.

The number of particles was higher than in the open ocean in a single liter of the Arctic sea ice. Scientists needed to study in depth studies on zooplankton, invertebrates, fish, sea birds and mammals.

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