Finding 2.4 million stone boulders and butcher bones, far more than in archeologists far away from the far reaches of remote ancestors of our ancestors to the northern African regions. Exceptions from New Zealand's ancient Edenian farmland add new findings suggesting new ways of living and evolving.
This discovery can be found until 2006, as Mohamed Sahnouni, the lead author of the new research and an archaeologist from the National Center for Human Evolution Research, discovered artificial sites called Ain Boucherit in the northeast of Algeria. El-Eulma. These elements are embedded in a sediment layer that has undergone a deep beach.
Two years later, Sahnouni found another layer, even older. From 2009 until 2016, his team worked in Ain Boucherit, with the discovery of traces of stone instruments and animal flesh.
Sahnouni and his colleagues had two stratigraphic layers, AB-Up and AB-Lw, of 1.9 million and 2.4 million, respectively. Among these two layers, nowadays, they are the oldest known artworks in Northern Africa, a 1.8 million-year-old stone instruments found in the decades prior to the site of Ain Hanech.
The tools found in the AB-Lw layer of 2.4 million years ago are 600,000 years older than those found in Ain Hanech and are younger than 200,000 years old in Eastern Africa (and the world). Skirt, Ethiopia, Oldowan tools, 2.6 million years ago. Scientists believed that in that African area early hominids would turn out, north, a million years later. But this discovery now suggests much more than the dispersion date on the continent.
To put these data in perspective, our species, Homo sapiensIt was founded 300,000 years ago. In this way, modern human beings who created these instruments by unknown unknowns created 2.3 million years ago in eastern and northern Africa. The new discoveries of Ain Boucherit, which nowadays are the details of Science publications, that North Africa did not suggest were the ancestors and ancestors of human ancestors. It was where they evolved.
In fact, this new research is developing a new narrative that is being fed by human beings developed throughout the continent of Africa, not only in conventional African Eastern beliefs. In addition, the archaeological interest of northern Africa must be increased.
Sahnouni used three different techniques: magnetostratigraphy, Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dates and animal bones analyzed bio-chronologically.
Eleanor Scerri, an archaeologist at the University of Oxford, was not related to the new research, said that the researchers had done great dating, "to be very difficult" to detect ancient human beings.
"Authors gather more than one dating method to make a quotation budget for the occupation [AB-Lw layer] Nearly 2.4 million years ago, "said Mrs. Scerrik." To this end, they reconstruct a geomagnetically retrieved sequence in the local conserved area. The researchers then found the place of the chronology of occupation strata of the sequence, using electron resonance resonance (ESR) data of sediment minerals and fossil identification. [animals]. "
Scerri confirms these methods in a timely manner, but includes some uncertainties and hypotheses.
Jean-Jacques Hublin, a researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, also did not participate in a new study, as Sahnouni and his colleagues used no dating techniques.
"External claims require extraordinary evidence and may have some reservations about age proposed by Ain Boucherit and Ain Hanech," said Hublin Gizmodo. "Paleomagnetism is not a dating method. It helps to limit the dates obtained by other methods and there are different interpretations."
Fair enough These are extraordinary claims, so the independent efforts to make these layers and artefacts would be protected will be protected.
"If verified, the findings suggest that hominins were occupied in the North nearly a million years before they thought," said Scerrik. "Dates also would be Oldowan only in North Africa, a little younger than in East Africa."
Oldowane cites Scerri's most popular stone industry in the world. This technology has not been able to change evolutionary historical simplicity, establishing stone structures even more sophisticated, such as Acheulean culture.
Strange, the stone tools found in Ain Boucherit were similar to those of Oldowan East Africa. Oldowan lithics has stone cores removed from the surface, and edges are produced with sharp edges. In addition to these tools, the researchers decorated with ball-shaped rocks, whose purpose is not very clear.
"Ain Boucherit archaeological, as Goa Oldowan is technologically similar, our ancestors came to all parts of Africa, not just East Africa," Sahnouni said in a statement. "Algerian evidence has changed [our] East African vision earlier [as] have a human cradle Actually, Africa was a whole cradle of humanity. "
To present Oldowan technology in northern Africa, researchers are focusing on two scenarios: Technology developed by East African hominids, about 2.6 million years ago, rapidly expanding their northern technologies and homininals in the north. Africa invented Oldowan technology as other independent groups.
When animal bones were discovered, archaeologists discovered mastiffs, elephants, horses, rhinoceroses, hypopotamias, wild antelopes, pigs, hyenas and crocodiles – oh my! Clearly, these ancient men were not electors. Most importantly, many of these animals may have open savanna environments and easy-to-maintain simple bodies of freshwater. It's likely that Oldowan describes the landscapes that people live like.
Fossil bones analyzed significant iron signals, such as V-shaped goblins with evisceration and defleshing, and suggestive extraction of bones. Ain Boucherit is the oldest site in Northern Africa today with stunning archeological evidence of meat use in the use of stone tools.
"The efficient use of rigorous cutting tools like Ain Boucherit suggests that our ancestors were not insignificant," said Isabel Cáceres, an archaeologist at the Rovira i Virgili University in Spain, and a research co-author. a statement "It's not clear at this time [is] They either hunted or not, but the evidence clearly showed carnivorous carnivores competing and first accessing animal carcases. "
Unfortunately, there are no hominin bones found, so researchers can invent inventions only for the species in charge of the tools. Could not be Homo habilis, at the time, an early or late human species in the area AustralopithecinesHominin genus related to the famous Lucy fossil.
Scerri says that this paper highlights the importance of North Africa, as well as Sahara, to find out more about human origins in archaeologists. The paper, he said, poses new questions about the evolution of the human being, including the origin and dissemination of Oldowan technology.
"The paper does not respond to these questions, but it changes narrative by increasing them, as it becomes effective, alternatives to the original African East African model," said Gizmodo.
"According to the authors, 3.3 million annual fossils Australopithecus bahrelghazali They have been found in the Sahrawi region of Chad. The discoveries reported by Sahnouni and colleagues, therefore, give more and more power to North Africa and Saharan games change their findings. "
Humans did not have a single inhabitant evolution
In the 1980s, scientists now living in humans, a woman named "Mitochondrial Eve", who lived in Africa between 150,000 and 200,000 years.
These findings coincide with Scerri's own research. It was published in July in the Ecology and Evolution Trinket, which was proclaimed by Scerri and his colleagues. Homo sapiens It originated in Pan-Africa, and our species did not have an evolutionary population of the same age.
"In our model, human ancestors were scattered in Africa," he explained. "Different populations interacted with each other at different times and in different places, these dynamic mixing and distribution models eventually led to the development of contemporary human populations and biological characteristics. Sahnouni and colleagues' opinions are consistent. The difference in species is about 18 million years before. "
From now on, the scientists will make more efforts to bring Africa closer to "less" regions more precisely. real – Hominid evolution over time.
"The map of Saharan and human origin that explores other areas in lesser corners will soon return, which in no way reduces important and valuable findings of eastern and southern Africa."[Science]