Saturday , July 2 2022

Travel to the heart of the red planet to hear your lively signs


"It's a good idea to innovate," said the philosopher. "The Interplanetary trip is back to our childhood".

This phrase, before the classic edition of the classic Ray Bradbury
chronic mArcianas (Minotauro, 1976, Borges' background) is very much awaiting the ineffable encounters that are taking place today in wide spaces. After traveling for more than six months at the age of 17, the NASA Insight Survey will land Martian on Earth to begin a two-year Earth mission to understand the rocky planet Earth. The Solar System (Mars itself, Venus, Mercury and also the Earth), 4,500 million years ago.

"Viking is a static ship, not a vehicle like Vaguera," explained Miguel San Martín, an Argentine engineer, after parting the success of four successive downsides of our cosmic residents, is part of the team of consultants supervising design and testing. This mission – So far, most of the probes and satellites have been exploring the surface and Marsen had been alive or did not see it, it's not about it, but exploring the interior. The red planet does not have a strong magnetic field like Earth, which is essential for protecting the atmosphere of the sun's wind. "

"Why did you lose it?" The mystery is, on the other hand, the planet's planet is active, the formation of its formation is already infected, and there is no better way of analyzing things so dynamic. He is studying Marsen in the past, and he understands why they are separated, "he adds.

The planets of the Solar System came from the cave, ice and waste drive with the star of our home. Mars is, ultimately, the one after the Earth, but astronomers know little about their inner nature. Until now, many other missions have continued in 1971, NASA sent its first orbit, Mariner 9 (7300 cover images and two moon, Phobos and Deimos), studied the atmosphere, engraving dust storms and signs ( unsuccessful) search.

Starting – or planned for 2016 -, as a result of the gap in the extraction module equipment, Insight ("Internal Investigations to Investigate through Seismic Research, Geodesy and Heat Transport"). ) performs three main tools.

A seismogram will hear small vibrations of the crust, the fractions of a nanometer (one million meters), which are seismic waves that travel to the planet and allow the creation of an interior 3D image.

The drilling machine will drill about five meters across the Martian crust to analyze the heat that is coming up deeply and give the idea of ​​its activity. And another experiment will determine how much Mars the North pole will have to "move", as the Sun orbits. These notes will provide detailed information on the size of Mars's iron wealth and will determine both liquids and others. has items.

"The most interesting thing about these missions is that we can understand our world," says Diego Bagú, astronomer of the National University of La Plata and the Director of Planetarium in the city. "This is the first time that it can be drilled on the earth. In Martian and know that seismic movements and heat flow seem, even though it does not have Earth's fractures like the Earth's appearance and therefore the tectonic plate movement does not have a geological effect due to the influence of meteorites , for example, how to emit seismic waves to determine the interior of the planet. "

Fear of seven minutes

Having reached the finish line, Insight performs a key step towards the whole mission: it will open the solar panels. Thus, one meter in height and 360 kg in weight will be six meters long (half a third of a group's duration). These "wings" result in sun rays (this distance is brighter than brighter than 50% of the earth).

Unlike other sources, you will have to use an articulated robotic arm to slowly move the trace tools into a process of about three months.

But to do this, we must pass the "entry, fall and landing" sequence (EDL), because the control center needs to overcome an operation of adrenaline flow, although it has not been repeatedly guaranteed.

"The copy of the 2007 Insight Phoenix is ​​almost identical, although the design is good, staff can always make a mistake," argues San Martin, a veteran of these laws. But sometimes something happens to us. The atmosphere of Mars changes by seasons as happens here. Pressure increases or decreases. If it is somewhat compact, landing becomes more complex. And it can also contain dust storms. For this reason, a NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) group continued its approach to a decisive moment, in theory, the system of the decline could be modified to strengthen its strength. Opportunity, for example, had a compact atmosphere and we made minor adjustments to maximize the chances of success, "he added.

In fact, yesterday, at the last minute, the Insight team led the route to move around 16 kilometers from landing.

There are also other obstacles. To lower the ship correctly, you must enter the right angle: if it is steep, it can be shattered; On the other hand, if it is very open, it will reject the atmosphere and continue to float in space.

"About six and a half minutes from now, the module will start at almost 20,000 kilometers, starting at eight o'clock," says Bagú, "and a window of about 10 km, should enter 20 on each side, a city with a smaller area."

Although Mars's atmosphere is 100 times thinner than on the ground, the module in the entrance should be protected against friction, with a thermal protection prepared by saving at 1300 ° C. Afterwards, it will open the paraplegia and, before placing it on the ground for 40 seconds, it will stretch both legs and extend the fingers to reduce the speed of 12 impulses and pass through an area called Elysium Planitia. and flat and quite rock free.

Marco Polo Marsen

Another new addition to this mission is that the probe must travel with two minisatelites (or
CubeSat) Maro-A and MarCO-B (mission technicians called Marco / Polo), which is responsible for providing ground-breaking communication services as a module. stage stage after the earth, and a concept proof to be used in interplanetary space exploration.

"In 1999, a ship said:" We have seen each other on the surface "and we have not heard it again," said San Martin, "so NASA said that all the casualties should be telemetry, so if we fail, it was not We made good trips and resolved later. In general, we have spaces that are in orbit and we work with
on relay. Insight makes these two
CubeSat After running it separately and in parallel, but behind. On landing, these small satellites will receive a signal and will go to the Earth. And it's a good thing if we work, we've never survived a satellite & # 39; Will be the ideal geometry of Marsen soil. "

Regardless of what is thought, the rate of international decline is not the highest, about 40%. "Sometimes these things seem to be commonplace," said Bagú, "but in reality it is a great challenge."

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