Wednesday , September 28 2022

Treasure Trove of Planets Found Hustling in Dust



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"Super-Lands" and Neptune-sized planets may create much younger stars than scientists thought, astronomers suggest new research by an international team.

In the Taurus constellation, when observing the sampling of young stars, researchers found many visible invisible solar cells and youth traces. The research published in the Astrophysical Journal helps scientists to better understand how our solar system was created.

About 4,600 million years ago, our solar system brought our babies up to the gas and dust bands of the sun. In the early stages, this protoplanetary disk had no distinctive features, but soon its parts began to become a set of materials – future planets. When they gathered new material that traveled around the sun, they grew up and began to record the ring patterns that began to emerge. Over time, dusty records have given way to a fairly organized arrangement that we know today, such as planets, moon, asteroids, and occasional comets.

Scientists focus on the state of this protoplanetary disk of our solar system, which is currently based on the stars of the planet's birthing process. Atacama Large Millimeter Array (or ALMA), composed of 45 antennae in the Atacama Desert in Chile, has undergone a survey conducted by young stars in the Taurus star-forming region, a large gas and dust cloud, which is 450 light years long. The researchers who imagined 32 stars with protoplanetary disks, 12 of them (40 percent), have rings and gaps, that is, according to group measurements and estimates according to the presence of the nested planet.

"This is an excellent exoplanet statistics for the first time, which suggests that the most common types of super-Earth and Neptunes are planetary observations and protoplanetary disks," said Feng Long PhD student at the Kavli Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Beijing University in Peking, In china

While Protoplanetary disks appear as uniforms, objects that look like pancake-like features or patterns have been seen, have seen concentrating ring shades that distinguish gaps, but previous surveys have found that the brightest of these objects are easier because it is not clear how rings and gaps The usual drives are in the universe. This study presents the results of the first surveys when the target disks perceive them independently of their brilliance, that is, the researchers did not know when they were selected to select the rings structures for their purposes.

"Most of the previous observations were detected by the presence of very massive planets. We know that they are very common, with bright disks in the interior holes or gaps," said the second paper writer, Paola Pinilla, a NASA Hubble Fellow. Arizonako Stewardako Behatokia Unibertsitatea. "When massive planes were some of these radiant disks, little disks were known."

Nathan Hendler and Ilaria Pascucci, at the UA Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, measured the properties of RNAs observed by the DNI and the ALMA, and analyzed possible mechanisms that could see rings and gaps. Although structures have been structured, previous studies can create other effects. As it is indicated, the ice sheets in the dust particle chemistry generate ice sheets that respond to the star of the host and the magnetic field, by varying the pressure on the disk. These effects can cause disk variants, revealing rings and voids.

The researchers tested alternative explanations for the analysis and did not correlate between stellar properties and gaps and rings models.

"Therefore, we can exclude the idea of ​​icing on rings and gaps," said Pinilla. "Our findings are likely to be the cause of the planetary births, although there may be other processes."

Due to the direct detection of planet bananas, it is impossible to clarify the bright star of the host, and the team has made calculations in the Taurus star-shaped region. According to some findings, the planets of the Neptune gas or so-called super-Earths (land planets to more than 20 land masses) should be the most common. Only two of the observable discs can be behemoths Jupiter, playing the biggest planet in the solar system.

"Most of today's exoplanet surveys do not allow a protoplanet binder to penetrate, all exoplanets, with an exception, have been detected in advanced systems because there is no disk in it," said Pinilla.

From now on, the researchers are planning to keep ALMA antennae away, that is, the resolution of arrays over five astronomical units (one UA for the same distance between Earth and Sun) and sensitive to other frequencies for antennas are sensitive to other types of dust.

"Our results are an exciting step to understanding this planetary phase of the formation of the planet," said Long, "and when adjusting, we want to better understand the origin of rings and voids."

Reference: "Taurus Star-Forming Region Records Record ALMA Gaps and Rings", Feng Long et al., 2018, to appear in the Astrophysical Journal [http://apj.aas.org, preprint: https://arxiv.org/abs/1810.06044].

This work was carried out through international cooperation, including the UA Steward Observatory and LPL astronomers. The financing of this project was provided by the Peking University, the National Science Foundation, Hubble Fellowship Programs, the National Science Foundation and Earths in Other Solar Systems Nexus for the Exoplanetary System Science program.

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