"What was his name? I swear my tongue at the top."
Did you ever mean to say a word or name to a person and you can not do it?
If you had your language and you had the feeling of frustration and gap.
Well, do not worry first.
We are the victims of the phenomenon Type of language (PDL) – Yes, science was called – and we'll be back.
But why does that happen? Who does not have the most effect?
Punta de la Lengua is something special about the phenomenon it does not distinguish
"That is universal everything happens Speakers of different speakers, not only in Spanish, but in English, Hebrew, French, etc. People of different ages occur to children and elderly adults, "says Lise Adams, Professor of Language and Cognitive Sciences at Pomona College, California, United States.
And it's just a phenomenon in the spoken language. Sign language also occurs to people who speak it, it is called phenomenon Finger tip (TOF, in English).
What happens in our brain?
Men need access to specific sounds to pronounce the words.
And for different reasons, access to these sounds is weakened or interrupted. Then we can not hire them.
"On the one hand, we can participate in the level of knowledge (semantic). We know that we know the word, we are sure. And on the other, language (phonological). It happens that the phonological activation is not composed of the presence of a complete semantic activation"Explained David Facal, professor at the Department of Evolutionary Psychology at the University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
"Sometimes we know the first letter, the syllable, but we can not fully recover the word," says BBC Mundo.
"As a matter of uninteresting thought, when we remain in the center of thought, we also know how to think of a window and that is why this phenomenon has been interesting since the nineteenth century," adds Fasal.
Note to the table: "People At different levels we represent names (and other words): what it means (semantics), how sound (phonology) and how to visualize (visual concepts). The dotted lines indicate the recovery process word it can not be brokenLow or low use, which reduces the transmission through these connections and It avoids the name's recovery or the word. Nouns own They have itfor specialty accessories as system breaks down c in the middle of each oneomponent: Name or surnames, for some reason More PDL passages can be generated in their own names with other words, "explained Adams.
Why is it happening?
There are many hypotheses, but there is no doubt about what affects the PDL phenomenon.
"Fatigue, fatigue, age and cognitive impairment at a given time, a sound of the word is not activated, the whole lexical form of the word can not be highlighted, "reveals Facal.
However, Adams does not have important data that supports this idea.
"We have investigated and found the relationship between Punta de la Lengua and the moments of anxiety or stress Change according to age"He said.
According to Adams, in co-operation with colleagues, elderly adults had PDL episodes during anxiety. However, middle-aged adults suffered from stressful situations and had less PDL episodes.
"So, some people may be very beneficial for recovery," words can not be highlighted, a specialized study.
Although it warns "Still to explore many emotional factors this can be a phenomenon at the tip of a language ".
For BBC Worldwide consultants, the PDL phenomenon often occurs own names
Basically, there is no other possible word to define this person to consider.
"Take Antonio Banderas as an example. We know that he is an actress, he is a Spaniard, who plays in Hollywood, because he is brown, and he relates to Banderas," says Facal.
"But if we do not have the ability to activate Flags, we can not find a synonym. Then we feel more compassionate in the language. "
However, "if we mean a red word and it does not come out, we can say it's red, the color of the tomato …" he explained.
Who else happens?
Research by far Older people over 60 years of age They have a higher risk of suffering from PDL episodes.
Also speaking two or more languages.
"In that case bilingualsTyping sounds into two groups, using two-tone sounds that use less than one speaker-only speaker. Reducing usage is lessening the use of spoken word for spoken words, "says Adams.
Advisor warns of two older specialists, PDL episodes are more common. And it happens with unusual words.
When the alarm signal appears, it is difficult to create words that are common or frequentas a daily object. "This is not something normal," warned Professor of Language and Cognitive Sciences.
Is PDL linked to dementia?
Specialists they refuse
"As we have found, the frequency of the Punta de la Lengua phenomenon is quite independent of memory skills," emphasizes Facal of the University of Compostela.
"As Alzheimer's dementia occurs, not only does lexical access change, but the knowledge of the word changes," he explains.
However, "we found both processing speed relationship. Static response speed would be linked positively to the frequency of Punta de la Lengua phenomenon, "he explained.
How to avoid
Read, read and read.
This is the main recommendation for the experts.
"You have to be life intellectually activeRead a lot, read a lot, write and maintain the control of cardiovascular factors, such as physical exercise and healthy lifestyle, "says Facal.
Cognition recommendation for normal aging is a semantic activation.
For example, Do not interrupt the conversation because the word is not generated. Follow the examples and features of the word to talk and make it appear.
Or "you know to remember some names that are problematic, try to use it more often in the conversation. It is safe to stop having episodes of Punta de la Lengua," Adams recommends.
"It's not something to worry about, many people suffer, it's even healthy and normal, and it will happen throughout your life", Adams concludes.
This article is in the digital version of Hay Festival Cartagena, the meeting of writers and thinkers that take place in this city Colombian between January 31 and 3 of February Page 2019.
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