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WIRED Guide for the Flight of the Humanitarian Space

In the morning On 13th December 2018 Virgin Galactic WhiteKnightTwo made a fast track to reach California's Mojave. As a regular traveler to cyclists, Richard Branson owned a two-wheeled catamaran on an airplane while flying on an overcoat on a chair. But WhiteKnightTwo was not an airplane anymore: it was hooked between the two space Being a plane called the SpaceShipTwo on the planet, it is the first private profession that distant tourists on the planet.

WhiteKnightTurned to a height of 50,000 meters. From that time on, Jet would release SpaceShipTwo; Both riders fired fire engines and crafted space.

The words "3 … 2 … 1 …" came from the radio.

SpaceShipTwo was like a sleek stone, free.

"Fire, fire," said a controller.

Command, shooter from craft engines. In the folds of the mountain, a cup broke out of the space and escaped. Soon after, two villages and fire stopped: SpaceShipTwo was just floating. The arch of the earth bent over the window, against the rest of the universe. Decorative dashboard pendant, which looks like a snowflake wheeled in the cabin microgravity.

"Welcome to space," he said. For this reason, Virgin Galactic began their first astronauts, the elderly but private non-government-sponsored private companies.

In most of the space flux history, humans have been exploited by governments. In the middle of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo 30-year long-shutdown program, NASA United States's "Space Tracking Games" has prevailed. But nowadays, multinational companies, who used to make other breasts in other industries and to dreams of starbucks that are now being used, take a flashlight or at least a part of fire.

Virgin Galactic is, in turn, a style of tourist style, and such hope spaces often refer to a philosophical upsurge as a real change in the human realm as a true planet. The other companies want to set up the permanent seat of the moon and / or Martha, and sometimes fate and salvation speak. The strength of human spirits and the strength of the exploration and spirituality of our species are also blurred.

But do not forget, of course, theoretically money is needed; and the federal government does not fly astronauts. After closure of the 2011 space shuttle program, the United States did not have the ability to send human beings to space and has since defended Russia. But this has to change: Today, two private companies-Boeing and SpaceX hire the International Space Station for humans to fly.

But before launching NASA's dossiers in space, the company's magnates acknowledged what they did with their private rockets. The supplies could be government budgets for the Space Station. The satellites were launched. Tourists rolled into suborbitals. Industrial infrastructures were promoted in deep spaces. They set the Moon and Mars. Humans were always able to turn into a life-changing species and travel often or long-term life of the Earth. It's exciting: ultimately, science fiction, great prediction and future creator tells us that space is the next (end) limit in decades and we can not (or not) go.

Private space companies are taking small, long-term and large-scale space, and are much more than just 2019. But the deadlines persist: like cold fusion, the private space of human space is constantly on the court. Perhaps part of the delay is to travel to the private space space of the space, and above all stretch out Private space travel for the human space: business model has hardly been proven, and most of these companies have no money for human beings: often, here and now, revenue generates operations that close the satellites and supplies. by far, not far away by sending humans. But the most promising plans are backed by large pools with great agents and, in other words, aimed at other riches. Science fiction, however, has become a space.

History of Private Trip to Human Space

Nowadays, capitalist space jet companies are calling their New Space industry, although in previous days the thinkers talked about "". We could say everything in 1982, when the Spatial Services company launched the first rockets of the first private money: Minuteman changed a missile that was named after Conestoga I (after the wagon). The flight was just a demonstration, extending 40 kilos of pure water usage. But two years later he surpassed the United States' Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984.

The driver of the drivers went up in 2001, the seat of finance called Dennis Tito was purchased in a Soyuz Russian rocket and costing $ 20 million, nearly eight days of vacation for the Space Station. Space Adventures arranged this precious flight, sent six more amateur astronauts into Russian space.

That same year, a boy named EloMusk, rich in selling PayPal, announced a plan called Mars Oasis. It seems that Red Planet wanted to expand public support for human beings, so public pressure would boost the mission of Congress for Marsi. Based on the foundation of Life to Mars Foundation, Musk proposed a private fund-funded outbreak of up to $ 20 million from Mars Land to build a greenhouse for March 2005.

$ 6.8 billion

Calculate the potential value contracted by NASA SpaceX and Boeing to the astronauts and Space Station.

This, taken into account, never happened, partly, the cost about to The future garden was so great. A U.S. rocket had to pay $ 65 million ($ 92 million dollars) for a $ 2019 cost, worth $ 10 million worth of Russian ICBM. A year later, Musk decided to lower the rocket fence. From the "foundation" to "corporation", SpaceX began a rocket company with the explicit headquarters of Mars.

Initially, Musk did not want to send people to the space. The rider (and then the astronaut) Mike Melvill flies SpaceShipOne, similar to a bullet grown in the cloud legs, in 2004 space. After the test flight and subsequent trips, SpaceShipOne earned $ 10 million X-Prize. These flights brought together two New Space dreams: private craftsmen and astronaut private craftsmen. After the victory, Virgin Galactic and Scaled Composites developed high-flying technology at SpaceShipTwo. According to the Virgin, in 2009, the passenger ship tried to send passengers to space … the cost of an average house. (After all, why would one house go forever in space for five minutes?)

$ 3.5 billion

NASA's first contract contracts with SpaceX and Orbital Sciences (now Northrop Grumman) ISS supplies, from 2009 to 2016

The Galactic of the Virgin Mary always keeps her close to home, and it is often frequent in the short flights that are suborbitaries. Musk has, however, retained his original martial mission. After the first rocket of the orchestra, SpaceX has won a NASA contract for space station buses in 2008 and there are still no cargo charges. But the launcher actually got legs in the years 2012 and 2013 when it launched the badges called Grasshopper. However, he did not lift the air, even though he started launching, as he was able to rise again (for example, the muzzle). This recycling opened up ways to recover today's Falcon 9 rockets and has contributed to the transformation of fire-retardant energy from recyclability.

Virgin Galactic

Virgin Records with Virgin Atlantic mobile operator Virgin Atlantic has earned money on the block.

WhiteKnightTwo + SpaceShipTwo

Virgin Galactic makes a space plane that travels in space with six passengers and two riders, so it has little weight and incredible insights. Richard Branson hopes to go to the middle of this year, so the tourists will soon continue.

The purpose of Musk, since the failure of Mars Oasis, has always been to reduce the costs incurred. Today, SpaceX's Falcon 9 reusable rocket is still costing 50-60 million dollars, but more than $ 100 million in competitors. Getting to space, thinking goes, should not be the greatest obstacle to having no face spaceship. Although SpaceX can do this, the company may one day, theoretically, send Mars a large number of shipments and manuscripts from Musk in "MAKE LIFE MULTIPLANETARY".

But the multiplanetary path has not always been for SpaceX. Reusable sea bundles collapsed into the ocean at sea, stuck in the boat, dropped by ships, overflowing ships, scattered throughout the air, split up, burst into the middle and burst into the launcher.

The real New Space course, however, was never smooth, and SpaceX is the only company with no crash. Virgin Galactic, for example, faced tragedy in 2014 under the WhiteKnight jet under the pilot Pete Siebold and copilot Michael Alsbury SpaceShip.

Blue origin

Jeff Bezos, Amazon's reputation and fortune, is still marred by the search for spaces.

New Shepard

The reusable generator of Blue Origin will take over 11 kilometers of suborbital flight crews and loads, resulting in a feather painted on its body. The goal is to send the first crew this year.

New Glenn

Blue Origin says "a heavy space to build space for space," he wants a recyclable rocket. The launcher will be released in 2021.

SpaceShipTwo flight was not planned. SpaceShipTwo has a "feathering mechanism" that is unlocked and enabled when it is slowed down to slow down the ship. But Alsbury unlocked it as soon as possible, and he was still dragging his handkerchief while his rockets were firing. He fluttered aerodynamic forces over SpaceShipTwo, when Alsbury died. Siebold parachute, alive, on the ground. Some customers have canceled. Most people wanted to go to space, even though the industry was lower than risk and lower-than-low commercial flights.

In the meantime, another important corporation -Green Origin- blurred through the work of human mission plans. The dreamed scientific project funded by the founder Jeff Bezos began in 2000 before Musk began with SpaceX, but it remained a long time ago. So, by the April 2015 test, the New Shepard rocket could not be recovered. He opened a capsule but fell to the ground. In November, however, New Shepard said what he could do: he touched down, SpaceX moved on to the starting point and the ground.

Blue Origin, like Virgin Galactic, wants to use its small rocket to send a suborbital tourist space. And he wants, with larger rockets, to make the moon a permanent colony. Bezos has suggested that heavy industry must overcome this planet, in places that are dirty, but with fewer resources. According to the first lunar touch, he says that it could be in 2023, especially by favoring the residential and industrial soil.

SpaceX also has 2023 large plans. The company announced it in September in 2023, sending Japanese assistant mogul Yusaka Maezawa and friend of the moon's travel companion. NASA works with the company and Boeing in the ISS as an astronauts bus and commercial crew program.

However, for all the trends in broad-vision businesses, the Virgin's galactic is private, and has sent a private private vehicle.

Future of the private flight of human space

As these companies see the future, they will be, (humbly, of course) a space trip that will be standardized, whether it is going to take it to Carmain or to another celestial body. Space shots will lead travelers and experiments to suborbital displacements, throwing back less time than sight Right things. Rockets will start and launch again, based on moonlight and martial arts commercialization of satellites and market physical and biological burden. In it, the colonists would still survive the species apocalypse (nuclear, climate) on the land. Homo sapiens has revealed his destiny, who was always a brave pioneer. And it's an exciting idea we do not stick to a cosmic eternity!

But all these companies are businesses, not philanthropic views. Life Casuality is the space step and the serious interplanetary really a financial saving perspective? And, more importantly, is it desirable?

We start off from low tourist suburbital tourism, offering Virgin Galactic and Blue Origin. Some economies find it quite feasible: as we know one thing about the world, the subgroups of the population always have too much money and they can spend vital things to enjoyment. Although these planes become routine, however, prices may slow down and space tourism has continued to drive the aviation market industry, it was rich, and today it is the headquarters of Spirit Airlines. Some also specify the flight of orbitals and six-star space hotels (an extra star in the space part) to sleep.

In the space business market, more infrastructure could be followed. And if you are building something to do it It allows space, easier and cheaper in space, space materials, than the amount of money you need to start to use. Perhaps moon miners and manufacturers could establish a proto-colony, which can lead people who live there continuously.

Or not. Who knows? I can not see the future and you can not, and you do not have these billionaires.

But long trips or permanent homes create more difficulties, whether it is possible to make money, or to build a box filled with a dusty moon. The most difficult part of human space exploration will always be human.

Weak creatures have evolved in the environment this planet Mutations and adjustments have been cut to live here, and therefore uniquely no Suitable for living in space, or Valles Marineris. It's too hot or too hot; There is no air to breathe; You can not eat your own shit potatoes without eating your natural life. Your microbes can have people's immunity to digestive immunity, scientists still do not understand, and even though it does not know how microbial affects it, it's probably not the same if you live as a crater in your apartment.

Also, in lower gravity, your muscles diminish. Swimmers swim in the background. Drugs do not always work as expected. The shape of your brain changes. Your mind is foggy. Equilibrate your eyeballs. Then it's a radiation, it can cause tissue deterioration, it causes cardiovascular disease, the disorder of the nervous system, cancer, or promotes radioactive radiation until it dies. If you keep your body, you will still lose with your crew members, come back (planetsick), and you definitely You will get bored of your skull on the trip and continue and continue through tedium.

Perhaps there is a technological future to alleviate all of these effects. After all, many things that are not well understood today, from vaccines to quantum mechanics. But multimillionaires do not usually deal with people's problems: when they talk about space cities, they leave details, and money goes to physics, not biology.

They do not speak about so much cost or compensation. But Blue Origin and SpaceX are hoping to get together with NASA (ie, using federal money) to reach their eastern provinces, thanks to this kind of private private space publicprivate space There are already two thousand million contracts with NASA and the Department of Defense for short-term projects, national security satellites and more infrastructure. Virgin, on the other hand, is a division called Virgin Orbit, which will send small satellites, and SpaceX will create a huge giant complication to offer global Internet coverage. And, at least, foreseeable future, it is likely that they will be far away from their income satellites than infrastructure across the globe. In that regard, though they are New Space, they are just ordinary government contractors.


Elon Musk made his first fortune in PayPal.

Falcon 9 + Dragon

SpaceX astronauts and accessories will also transport the NASA International Space Station, and after its trip, Falcon will be on its lands, the Dragon capsule will go down. Bonus: The company can place the internal passenger temperature between 65 and 80 degrees. His first crew test could take place in the middle of 2019.

Super Heavy + Starship

In the case of the BFR (Big Falcon Rocket or Big Fucking Rocket), Red Planet suggests that this craftman SpaceX and its human capsule should take 100 people and 150 tons of charge. Musk introduced a smaller and suborbital prototype in January, and silver-sided and vintage-like science fiction in the 1950's became a rocket. His first test should be done this year.

So, if the money is closer, why look beyond the Earth's orbit? Why is it not a winning business that sends or transmits communications to the satellites? Yes, yes, the human spirit. OK, surely, survival. Two noble and energizing goals. However, sponsors may be interested in creating international, state-of-the-art, state-of-the-art facilities for people who can travel (or, perhaps, hard-working workers). Perhaps the sky's population will become a utopia of society, free from the confusion of this planet. Human beings can start from scratch, clearly clean something new and better with the extracurricular tabula. Or maybe, as in Earth, history would repeat itself, and human luggage will have a heavy load on colonial ships. After all, wherever you are, you are.

Maybe we'd better have the species left behind and we looked at our eyes directly. This is the science fiction writer Gary Westfahl in an "Space Against The Case" essay. Westfahl does not believe that when innovations occur when changing environments and creating difficulties; you created the situation

United Launch Alliance and Boeing

No Billers here. The complex justice industry is reversing itself. In the last 15 years, the rocket has achieved 100% success.

Atlas V + Starliner

The Atlas V rocket, Lockheed Martin and Boeing business unit created by United Launch Alliance, will join Boeing's CST-100 Starliner Capsule to send astronautics and science experiments to ISS. Starliner can fly 10 times as long as a six-month refractive period is not achieved – changes and tests – between each trip. His first crew test could take place in the middle of 2019.

Additionally, most Americans do not think that a large space space space would make national needs, at least not money. 2018 According to a Pew poll, more than 60 people have said that NASA's main priorities are climate control and Earth-smashing asteroids. Only 18 and 13 points are considered a human trip to Mars or moon, respectively. People, in other words, are interested in caring for this Keeping the planet, and life, than surviving another world.

But maybe that does not matter: history is good enough, and it has a sound atmosphere in the direction it has. Additionally, while part of the U.S. population was signed in the long-term space mission, it would take the largest liquidation of its extraterrestrial settlement in its space still in the solar system. And even though it was not an oasis, nor a utopia, it would be a giant leap.

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The last day, January 30, 2019

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