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Dark energy will not be a constant, which would bring revolution to physics




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The farthest distance from the X-ray rays of the universe, Quasar GB 1428, helps to show how bright objects are bright. In order to know how to use quantification measurements of the universe, we understand the dark energy more than ever.X-ray: NASA / CXC / NRC / C.Cheung et al; Optical: NASA / STScI; Radio: NSF / NRAO / VLA

Thanks to past generations, our universe is a particularly dark place. Of course, there are many phenomena of stars, galaxies and light emission wherever we see it. But all known processes that generate light are based on Particles of the Standard Model: the normal matter of our universe. The subject is normal & nbsp; – Protones, neutrons electrons, neutrinos, etc. & Nbsp; – What's up is just 5%.

Another 95% is a mystery dark, but we can not find out among the particles. According to our measurements, 27% of the Universe is dark matter and does not take any knowledge with light or normal matter. And the remaining 68% is dark energy, it seems that the energy of the same space. A new set of observations It is the challenge of what we think is dark energy. If it happens, we know everything will change.

Without energy, the universe would not be accelerated. But it seems necessary to explain the remote supernovae we see, such as dark energy (or something that accurately conveys it).NASA and amp; ESA, possible models of open universe

The best technique to understand the universe is not to go out and tell directly. If this were the only way to do this, we would literally lose 95% of the universe because it is not directly measurable. Instead, what can we do: Use a concern of the General Relativity: how different forms of matter and energy affect the space-time fabric and how it changes over time.

Especially, the extent to which the expansion rate is currently measured and the rate of expansion is changed through our cosmic history, we can use familiar relationships to rebuild the universe. We have been able to build a complete set of data available, supernova information, a large-scale universe structure and a microscopic microscope radiation combination: 5% ordinary matter, 27% dark matter, and 68% dark energy.

The dark energy limits of three independent sources: supernovae, cosmic micrometric backgrounds (CMB) and acoustic oscillation barium (BAO) have been found to have large-scale Universe structures. Note that, even without supernotes, we needed dark energy. Newer versions of this chart are available, but the results have largely not changed.Supernova Cosmology Project, Amanullah, et al., Ap.J. (2010)

Our best knowledge, Dark matter is like ordinary matter. The whole mass of the dark matter is solved, therefore, because the universe spreads and when the volume increases, the dark matter density goes down, like ordinary matter.

Dark energy is also different. But rather than a particle, it seems that it is an intrinsic type of energy that is the same space. As space spreads, the dark energy density remains constant, decreases or increases. Consequently, after being long after the Universe, dark energy dominates the energy budget of the universe. As time progresses, other components are becoming increasingly dominant, resulting in a rapid expansion we see today.

Matter (both normal and dark) and radiation, as it spreads as a result of increased volume, dark energy is a form of energy within space. As the new universe spreads in the new space, the dark energy density remains constant.E. Siegel / Beyond The Galaxy

Traditionally, the techniques of measuring the Universe spread are based on two observatory indicators.

  1. Standard candlestick: It is a well-known behavior of a light source and we can gauge the observed brightness, thus inferring its distance. We can measure a large number of sources to measure distance and ascending ways, how the Universe has expanded.
  2. Common rules: The intrinsic size scale of an object or phenomenon is known and we can measure the size of the angular appearance of this object or phenomenon. By measuring the size of the angular size and making it red, we can reconstruct how the Universe has expanded.

Any difficulty with these techniques – the kind of things that night-astronomers maintain – is frightening that our hypothesis about intrinsic behavior may be a mistake by curbing our effects.

One of the most successful methods of measuring the great cosmic distance is the appearance of two apparent brightness (L) or its angular size (R), which both observe directly. Understanding the physical physical properties of these objects can use Standard Candles (L) or Standard Rulers (R) as the Universe has expanded and, therefore, what its cosmic history is.NASA / JPL-Caltech

Until now, our best candlestick standards have gone far beyond the history of the Universe: the light of the universe was about 4 million years ago. Nowadays, it's almost 14 million years ago, we have been able to measure the remote size by almost supernova, providing a reliable and reliable indicator of the dark energy test.

Recently, however, a group of scientists have started to use X-ray emission quasars, much brighter and therefore visible before: One universe was one million years. in interesting new paperScientists Guido Risaliti and Elisabeta Lusso use quasars as standard candles to gauge the energy nature of the dark energy faster than ever. What they found was still tempting, but it was wonderful.

New research by Chandra, XMM-Newton and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) suggests that dark energy can change over cosmic time. The illustrator of this artist explains how astronomers have the effects of dark energy on the Big Bang for almost 1,000 years, with nearly 1,600 quasar distances, while black holes that glitter brightly. From the most remote quasar studied, Chandra appears in inserts.Illustration: NASA / CXC / M.Weiss; X-ray: NASA / CXC / Univ. Florence / G.Risaliti & amp; E.Lusso

Using a good deal of 1600 quasar data and a new method for determining their distances with a strong agreement with the results of the supernova with 10 million years ago: dark energy is real, about two-thirds of the universe energy, and it seems to be a cosmological constancy of nature.

But they also found remote Quasars, because they showed something unexpected: there is a deviation in the greatest distances of "continuous" behavior. Risaliti wrote a blog post here, detailing the implications of his work, including this gem:

Our latest Hubble Diagram gave us an unexpected result: while measuring the universe's dissemination with an internal supernovae of a normal distance (up to 4.3 million years ago), farther apart quotas mean that the standard cosmological expectation is a turning point! If we describe this deviation through dark energy components, we will see that its density will increase over time.

Distance between module (y axis, distance size) and redshift (x axis), along with quasar data, yellow and blue, with cyan supernoble data. Red dots are a yellow point of quartz. The supernova and quasar data match both (1.5 or roughly reintegration), the data quasar goes much further, indicating a constant (strong line) deviation from the interpretation.G. Risaliti and E. Lusso, arXiv: 1811.02590

This is a sharp measurement to carry out, to think, and first of all what you think is what the quasars are not trustworthy as a standard candle.

That was your thought: congratulations! When this happened something happened, they tried to use gamma-ray explosions as a remote indicator that could teach the supernova. As we learned more about these explosions, we did not find standard standards, as well as detection of our prevention and detection. On the one hand, there will be at least one of these two types of variants, and the overall result will be to achieve this.

Although it is a challenge to know why it will be, this evidence will hardly convince that the dark energy is not continuous, after all.

The expected fate of the universe is eternal, with a rapid expansion, in terms of w, the quantity of y axis, exactly equal to -1. If it's larger than W -1, if we're giving some data, our destiny will be Big Rip.C. Hikage et al., ArXiv: 1809.09148

But what happens if this new study is correct? What happens if dark energy is not a constant? What has happened over the last two decades, as in other comments, is it changing with time?

The above graph shows the results of some data sets, but what attention you want to do & nbsp;w, which appears on the axis. What we call & nbsp;w The state of the dark energy is the equation, where & nbsp;w & nbsp;= -1 is the value we could achieve as a cosmological cost of dark energy: an intrinsic energy mode with the same space. If & nbsp;w It's different -1, though, everything can change.

In different ways, dark energy can evolve in the future. Overcoming constant constraints or forces (Big Rip's) the rejuvenation of the Universe may potentially lie, the translated signal would lead to Big Crunch.NASA / CXC / M.Weiss

Our standard destiny, where & nbsp;w = -1, will cause the universe to be permanently extended, which is currently unlabelled by the effects of dark energy. But & nbsp;w Change over time or change with -1.

  • If & nbsp;w Less than 1 (eg, -0.9 or -0.75) is less than winter, dark energy is weakened by time and at the end it is not important. If & nbsp;w& nbsp; It grows in time and never becomes positive, to collect the Big Crunch of the Universe.
  • However, if this new result is true, & nbsp;w It is greater than -1 (for example, -1.2 or -1.5 or worse), then dark energy will be more powerful over time, and the space fabric will become more and more rapid. Linked structures, galaxies, solar systems, planets, as well as the atom itself will be torn off after enough time. The universe ends at a disaster called Big Rip.

If Big Rip scenario occurs, if dark energy intensifies, the negative direction remains over time.Jeremy Teaford / Vanderbilt University

The pursuit of understanding the ultimate destiny of the universe was the fascination of mankind from the dawn of that era. In addition to the general relativity and the arrival of modern astrophysics, the question was answered scientifically. Will the universe spread forever? Recollapse? Oscillate Or is it the same physics that explains our reality?

The answer is to look at the objects found around the Universe. The key to unlocking our ultimate cosmic destiny is, however, based on what we are seeing, and we do not measure our responses according to the assumptions about objects we observe. Dark energy may not be incessant, in short, and we only know what you are looking for the universe.

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The farthest distance from the X-ray rays of the universe, Quasar GB 1428, helps to show how bright objects are bright. In order to know how to use quantification measurements of the universe, we understand the dark energy more than ever.X-ray: NASA / CXC / NRC / C.Cheung et al; Optical: NASA / STScI; Radio: NSF / NRAO / VLA

Thanks to past generations, our universe is a particularly dark place. Of course, there are many phenomena of stars, galaxies and light emission wherever we see it. But all known processes that generate light are based on Particles of the Standard Model: the normal matter of our universe. There is only one common thing – protons, neutrons electrons, neutrinos, etc. – What's up is just 5%.

Another 95% is a mystery dark, but we can not find out among the particles. According to our measurements, 27% of the Universe is dark matter and does not take any knowledge with light or normal matter. And the remaining 68% is dark energy, it seems that the energy of the same space. A new set of annotations is what we are thinking about today's dark energy. If it happens, we know everything will change.

Without energy, the universe would not be accelerated. But it seems necessary to explain the remote supernovae we see, such as dark energy (or something that accurately conveys it).NASA and ESA, possible models of open universe

The best technique to understand the universe is not to go out and tell directly. If this were the only way to do this, we would literally lose 95% of the universe because it is not directly measurable. Instead, what can we do: Use a concern of the General Relativity: how different forms of matter and energy affect the space-time fabric and how it changes over time.

Especially, the extent to which the expansion rate is currently measured and the rate of expansion is changed through our cosmic history, we can use familiar relationships to rebuild the universe. We have been able to build a complete set of data available, supernova information, a large-scale universe structure and a microscopic microscope radiation combination: 5% ordinary matter, 27% dark matter, and 68% dark energy.

The dark energy limits of three independent sources: supernovae, cosmic micrometric backgrounds (CMB) and acoustic oscillation barium (BAO) have been found to have large-scale Universe structures. Note that, even without supernotes, we needed dark energy. Newer versions of this chart are available, but the results have largely not changed.Supernova Cosmology Project, Amanullah, et al., Ap.J. (2010)

Our best knowledge, Dark matter is like ordinary matter. The whole mass of the dark matter is solved, therefore, because the universe spreads and when the volume increases, the dark matter density goes down, like ordinary matter.

Dark energy is also different. But rather than a particle, it seems that it is an intrinsic type of energy that is the same space. As space spreads, the dark energy density remains constant, decreases or increases. Consequently, after being long after the Universe, dark energy dominates the energy budget of the universe. As time progresses, other components are becoming increasingly dominant, resulting in a rapid expansion we see today.

Matter (both normal and dark) and radiation, as it spreads as a result of increased volume, dark energy is a form of energy within space. As the new universe spreads in the new space, the dark energy density remains constant.E. Siegel / Beyond The Galaxy

Traditionally, the techniques of measuring the Universe spread are based on two observatory indicators.

  1. Standard candlestick: It is a well-known behavior of a light source and we can gauge the observed brightness, thus inferring its distance. We can measure a large number of sources to measure distance and ascending ways, how the Universe has expanded.
  2. Common rules: The intrinsic size scale of an object or phenomenon is known and we can measure the size of the angular appearance of this object or phenomenon. By measuring the size of the angular size and making it red, we can reconstruct how the Universe has expanded.

With any difficulty of these techniques – the kind of thing that astronomers keep at night – it is frightening that our hypothesis about intrinsic behavior may be a mistake, excluding our consequences.

One of the most successful methods of measuring the great cosmic distance is the appearance of two apparent brightness (L) or its angular size (R), which both observe directly. Understanding the physical physical properties of these objects can use Standard Candles (L) or Standard Rulers (R) as the Universe has expanded and, therefore, what its cosmic history is.NASA / JPL-Caltech

Until now, our best candlestick standards have been left far beyond the history of the Universe: when it was about 4 million years old the universe was lit. Nowadays, it's almost 14 million years ago, we have been able to measure the remote size by almost supernova, providing a reliable and reliable indicator of the dark energy test.

Recently, however, a group of scientists have started to use X-ray emission quasars, much brighter, and therefore visible before: just one million years from the Universe. Guido Risaliti and Elisabeta Lusso scientists use quasars as a standard indent to measure the dark energy nature to ever more than ever. What they found was still tempting, but it was wonderful.

New research by Chandra, XMM-Newton and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) suggests that dark energy can change over cosmic time. The illustrator of this artist explains how astronomers have the effects of dark energy on the Big Bang for almost 1,000 years, with nearly 1,600 quasar distances, while black holes that glitter brightly. From the most remote quasar studied, Chandra appears in inserts.Illustration: NASA / CXC / M.Weiss; X-ray: NASA / CXC / Univ. Florence / G.Risaliti & E.Lusso

Using a good deal of 1600 quasar data and a new method for determining their distances with a strong agreement with the results of the supernova with 10 million years ago: dark energy is real, about two-thirds of the universe energy, and it seems to be a cosmological constancy of nature.

But they also found remote Quasars, which showed an unexpected: in the greatest distance, there is a deviation of "continuous" behavior. Risaliti has written a blog post detailing the implications of her work, such as this gem:

Our latest Hubble Diagram gave us an unexpected result: while measuring the universe's dissemination with an internal supernovae of a normal distance (up to 4.3 million years ago), farther apart quotas mean that the standard cosmological expectation is a turning point! If we describe this deviation through dark energy components, we will see that its density will increase over time.

Distance between module (y axis, distance size) and redshift (x axis), along with quasar data, yellow and blue, with cyan supernoble data. Red dots are a yellow point of quartz. The supernova and quasar data match both (1.5 or roughly reintegration), the data quasar goes much further, indicating a constant (strong line) deviation from the interpretation.G. Risaliti and E. Lusso, arXiv: 1811.02590

This is a sharp measurement to carry out, to think, and first of all what you think is what the quasars are not trustworthy as a standard candle.

That was your thought: congratulations! When this happened something happened, they tried to use gamma-ray explosions as a remote indicator that could teach the supernova. As we learned more about these explosions, we did not find standard standards, as well as detection of our prevention and detection. One or both of these types of bias can play at least one play, and the overall result will be to achieve this result.

Although it is a challenge to know why it will be, this evidence will hardly convince that the dark energy is not continuous, after all.

The expected fate of the universe is eternal, with a rapid expansion, in terms of w, the quantity of y axis, exactly equal to -1. If it's larger than W -1, if we're giving some data, our destiny will be Big Rip.C. Hikage et al., ArXiv: 1809.09148

But what happens if this new study is correct? What happens if dark energy is not a constant? What has happened over the last two decades, as in other comments, is it changing with time?

The above graph shows the results from different data sets, but what attention do I want? w, which appears on the axis. What we call it w The state of dark energy is the equation, where w = -1 is the value we could achieve as a cosmological cost of dark energy: an intrinsic energy mode with the same space. yes w It's different -1, though, everything can change.

In different ways, dark energy can evolve in the future. Overcoming constant constraints or forces (Big Rip's) the rejuvenation of the Universe may potentially lie, the translated signal would lead to Big Crunch.NASA / CXC / M.Weiss

Our standard destiny, where w = -1, will cause the universe to be permanently extended, which is currently unlabelled by the effects of dark energy. But that's it w Change over time or change with -1.

  • yes w Less than 1 (eg, -0.9 or -0.75) is less than winter, dark energy is weakened by time and at the end it is not important. yes w Growing in time and becoming ever more positive in the Big Crunch of the Universe.
  • However, if this new result is true, and w It is greater than -1 (for example, -1.2 or -1.5 or worse), then dark energy will be more powerful over time, and the space fabric will become more and more rapid. Linked structures, galaxies, solar systems, planets, as well as the atom itself will be torn off after enough time. The universe ends at a disaster called Big Rip.

If Big Rip scenario occurs, if dark energy intensifies, the negative direction remains over time.Jeremy Teaford / Vanderbilt University

To understand the ultimate destiny of the universe, it has been the fascination of humanity since the time. In addition to the general relativity and the arrival of modern astrophysics, the question was answered scientifically. Will the universe spread forever? Recollapse? Oscillate Or is it the same physics that explains our reality?

The answer is to look at the objects found around the Universe. The key to unlocking our ultimate cosmic destiny is, however, based on what we are seeing, and we do not measure our responses according to the assumptions about objects we observe. Dark energy may not be incessant, in short, and we only know what you are looking for the universe.


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