Wednesday , January 27 2021

ZIP Code or Genetic Code?

In terms of illness and health, which is stronger: the ZIP code or the genetic code?

Strengthening the level of food and health in agriculture and food continues to be questions of eternal and still unanswered medicine.

Now, a Harvard Medical School and Queensland Australian research team questioned this question decisively.

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When researchers report large data and first-wave bumps, the group has used massive security data about 45 million people in the United States, including twin twins, to determine gene and environmental effects in 560 common conditions. 23 diseases have been diagnosed with diseases, cardiovascular diseases and neuromuscular and bone conditions.

Published on January 14 on Nature Genetics, he will be studying contemporary twins. Researchers have said. Likewise, the first is to go beyond the traditional vision of common illness and study hundreds of the most common 56,000 pairs of bikini.

Up to now, the excellent genes and genes in the surrounding genes have studied at one and the same time a single illness or environmental factor.

Many diseases are not completely genetic, not only for the environment, but also for the complexity of each other. Classical legacy conditions-genotypes or genetic mutations-are severely affected by mutations-environmentally-friendly conditions are the only outcomes of individual biological factors.

Most diseases are not adequately falling in both categories, but they have both. Understanding how genetics and the environment contribute to the same population of many diseases is very difficult, said researchers. The objective of the new study is to tackle this challenge by developing a new, large-scale analytical study.

"The question of Nurture-versus-nature is at the heart of our research, the value of this high-level analysis will be clarified in the relative contribution of many diseases in the environment of genesis," said Chirag Patel senior researcher, assistant lecturer in biomedical computing at Blavatnik Institute in Harvard Medical School.

The new methodology, said the team, highlights the value of large-scale studies in national research, such as the National Institute of National Health Systems, within the framework of the Precision Medicine Initiative, in order to carry out biological, genetic and social activities. and how to distribute personalized therapies about environmental diseases and health issues. The discovery of new research allows research research thanks to a wide range of diseases.

"Our discoveries can signal signs of research after research and help scientists help them focus their attitudes," said Chirag Lakhani, first researcher, a biomedical research researcher at the Blavatnik Institute at Harvard Medical School. "For example, if we analyze two twins, the impact of eye disorders on the family is very small, future studies should make alternative explanations."

With over 45 million patient data base databases (including 56,000 couples and over 724,000 couples), researchers estimate the influence of genes and their environment on twin pairs, which share half of their genomes, or DNA and the same. Twins, whose DNA is 100 percent the same.

Twins of the same sex may be the same or twin, even though the twin sex of the sexes are not the same or relatives, but the researchers did not know how identical the pairs were.

In order to avoid this obstacle, a novel statistical method was developed to infer the twin couple's brotherhood (identical) or the identical probability of inferring. In this way, the researchers could genetically differentiate them from non-genetic contributions.

All patients attended a minimum of 3 years in the insurance database, providing more researchers than in a short period of time. Recently published research, twins, twins, under the age of 24, were not designed to develop diseases over time. This means that the researchers do not know about the genetic and environmental impacts of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative conditions.

To analyze, for example, clinical diagnosis, image test results, blood chemistry tests, such as white and white blood cells, cholesterol levels and many others, as well as environmental factors: air pollution levels, climate conditions and socioeconomic status, all extrapolated from patient zip code .

About 40% of the diseases studied (225 of 560) had a genetic component, and at least 25 percent (138 of 560) were partially promoted as a result of a shared living environment, social impacts and the like.

Cognitive diseases showed the highest degree of heredity (showing four genetic components with four diseases); connective tissue disease had the lowest genetic impact.

In all categories of illnesses, eye disorders affected the diseases caused by 27 diseases of the highest environmental impact. Afterwards, 34 of the 48 diseases of respiratory diseases shared the same conditions.

The category of lower environmental impact disease was reproductive diseases, with 18 conditions in these conditions and with cognitive conditions, two of which have an effect.

In general terms, the socioeconomic status, climatic conditions and the quality of the airframe of each pair of zip code were much weaker than genetic and shared environments, compounded by external and non-genetic diseases, including family and lifestyle, households and neighborhoods.

In total, 560 illnesses were only 5 centimeters low due to the socioeconomic status of the statistics. Thirty-six diseases were caused, at least, in air quality, and 117 were affected by temperature changes. The situation associated with the socio-economic situation was painful obesity. Obesity undoubtedly has a genetic component, researchers said, findings make an important question of environmental impact on genetic predispositions.

"This finding brings together many questions, how to change the state and social-economic lifestyle and how to compare genetic predisposition towards obesity," said Patel.

Lead poisoning was a shared environment, it's not surprising. Conditions like flu and Lyme disease were caused by climatic differences.

After analyzing the class of illnesses, they were almost identical to the drivers of both expenses, which contributed substantially to the cost of the custody of both genes and the environment, according to monthly healthcare costs. Almost 60 percent of health expenses can be predicted by analyzing genetics and environmental factors.

This study allows a large-scale analysis to predict long-term costs to inform different allocation of conditions and resources and to make policy decisions, the researchers said.

The study results below are available at

Harvard Medical School Braden Tierney and Arjun Manrai, and Queensland University, Jian Yang and Peter Visscher, Australia.
The data sets of the study were provided by Aetna insurance company. Aetna did not make any financing.

The research is sponsored by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (grants 1078037 and 1113400), the National Science Foundation (1636870 scholarship) and Sylvia and Charles Viertel Charitable Foundation.

Image: iStock / fberti

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