A child's finger bends down at the doctor's office and the child shouts. "OW! Oh! Oh!"
How many older adults believe Americans believe that young patients will suffer if their children think they are a girl or a boy, according to a study published this month in Pediatric Psychology. Those who know Samuel as a "weak patient" may say that he is more pain than anyone with "Samantha", even if Samuel and Samantha were 5 years old, even though their long-haired hair, red shirts and gym shorts are not immediately male or Suggesting feminine features.
The baby's finger-prick test was a short video of 264 adults, between 18 and 75 men and women. On average, the participants said a boy was watching his pre-clinical doctor's visitation reaction on his pain, on a scale of 0 (no pain) for 100 (severe pain), 50.42, a patient rated a 45.90-min painkill Meanwhile. Researchers believe that they are controlling explicit sex stereotypes, they believe that boys are considered as hypothetical, the difference has disappeared, and they wanted to show pain for men and women to reflect on it. he shouted.
The results, described by Brian D. Earp as the "new research area" of the writer, help to better understand grief differences between sexes, especially in the adult context. They study the analysis of pain, based on the uncertainties about the biological differences between black and white aside from breeds. And they propose the need for correction of pediatric care courses, which may be the same as those that affect healthcare providers in the general public.
"Adults say a lot of authority and authority," This is how I feel. "We have stated in a rational manner," Earp, Associate Director of Ethics and Health Policy at the Yale-Hastings program, in a conversation with The Washington Post. "The smallest children and how they participate, it depends on the adult judgments of the room, understanding the structure of these decisions is important in order to be a good health health".
The authors of the paper were surprised at a discovery, the reduction of female pain was encouraged by female participants, as it was said that men were more likely to be less painful to the subject.
"This is a great mystery," said Earp. "We will come up with a reason".
Similar dynamics appeared in a 2014 study as a model for a new paper, where a sample of unusual nursing and psychological women saw the same videos as the new study and was more tender than Samantha. same behavior. Healthcare providers are encouraged to participate in these training attendees to cross-health care professionals. Their responses reinforce the idea that even when they affect children who think about sexual bias, there are also those that are "capable of making health decisions."
"It's a preliminary result, but we're pretty sure there is there," he said.
The principal author of the study, Lindsey Cohen, a professor of psychology at the State University of Georgia, said in a statement she had long been asked whether the results published in the Children's Health Magazines would be male.
It seems they do not. In the new study, the gender of young people was not affected by the assessments made by 156 male participants among the tissue seen on the video.
The discovery is "some voltages", paper releases, with the effects of related experiments, although there has been no center for the seriousness of male guys. For example, 2008 studies found that parents were more painful than their daughters in a test of a cold assessment that a subject placed in a hand ice bucket. Mother did not show the difference.
On the other hand, the study has shown that young children do not detect pain differently in relation to sex, depending on the adult population, both in terms of sensitivity and clinical risk. Taking into account the difference, sex hormones are not before puberty. An analysis of the consequences of adult effects on the effects of adulthood has been, above all, attitudes towards parents, because they have excellent insights.
A new study enters broader viewers. And the apparent biases of women surveyed did not surprise Kate Manne, the philosopher of Cornell University and the author of "Down Girl: The Logic of Misogyny." Because of the logical appraisal of women, he said he was less painful.
"The pressure on women is increasing because we put the pain in the right way, and since we are committed to increasing male pain, it makes sense that the woman is at least bad, not worse," said Mann.
The results, it is not surprising, was "very sad." "In fact, apparently all of them should be the same, some genre and gender stereotypes will be enough to respond to a certain degree of concern for a girl's pain."
If boys underestimate pain, Earp said, it may be a good reason to see men behave more painfully, "boys do not shout".
But Manne questioned the investigation by arguing that boys already learned to throw their emotions. While some studies suggest that the negative emotions of the child are more than girls, the model that adolescents only change in adolescents.
"It is still possible that we should socialize with the casualty of the boys, but the harmful rule seems to be very strong," he said. "Then, it starts to look really alarming, because the boy is really the basis for thinking about any other pain."
Earp said his next study was to present the race factor, "that the people's ears revealed the backbone of people with literally thicker skin," he said, but rarely combined with gender bias, especially among children.
Stark examples have consequences for both adults and children, for reasons of pain assessment. Some have been documented by the American Medical Association Journal of Ethics. African Americans and Hispanics have received more doses than fewer injuries than white ones. Emergency rooms have waited for more pain to make medication. Their grief was taken less seriously in the hospice. Research has shown that African Americans have a deeper back pain, the doctors have recorded the opposite. Minorities and income retailers have more difficulty evaluating and treating oral pain.
To the ear, this model suggests that the way adults interpret their children's pain may have effects on health, asking: "What are the real life treatments of this cognitive side?"