Every year, scientists are studying the International Space Station (ISS) to determine the effects of living in humans and microorganisms. In addition to the high level of radiation, the long exposure to microgravity may also have concerns about genetic mutations. Understanding of them and counteracting the measures, it is essential to become a species of humanity espionage.
Interestingly, a group of researchers from the Northwest University have recently investigated the bacteria that remained in the ISS. Against the suspect, bacteria did not change into a drug-resistant tension, but instead adapted to adapt to their environment. These results can be key to understanding how living things fit into the space's stressful environment.
The study describing the discovery has recently appeared mSystems, published scientific journals American Society for Microbiology. The study was led by Erica Hartmann, Assistant Professor, Department of Science and Environmental Engineering (DCEE), NWU, and DCEE graduated and postdoctoral researcher and NASA Johnson Space Center Sarah Castro-Wallace.
Such studies are essential for missions planned in the near future, such as NASA's mission missions and plans for lunar surface missions. As a result, China, Russia and India are looking for astronauts to send them to the Moon over the coming decades. Professor Hartmann explained in a NWU press release:
"There has been a great deal of reflection on radiation, microgravity and lack of ventilation, and the impact of living organisms, including bacteria, which are a tough and stressful condition, because the environment chooses superbugs because it has an advantage, the answer is not."
Hartmann and its associations consulted the National Biotechnology Information Center (NCBI), which provides information on microbial experiments on ISS. Specifically, bacteria evaluated how Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus were folded.
The first is on the human skin surface and has resistance to MRSA strain, responsible for causing infections in humans. He ultimately lives in the soil and has little effect on human health, but the microbes on the ground continue to grow as they move from comfort zone to unfavorable conditions of space.
"The bacteria living on the surface are very happy," Hartmann said. "Your skin is mild and contains some oils and chemicals like bacteria. When you release these bacteria, they live in a complete environment. The surface of the building is cold and tight, because it is very stressful for some bacteria."
When the groups grew up on the ISS, the same voltages appear on the ground. What was found in the bacteria living in the ISS changed to adapt to local conditions to continue feeding and growing at microgravity and at higher levels of radiation.
Ryan Blaustein, a former postdoctoral researcher at Hartmann's laboratory, said the result was amazing. "Based on genomic analysis, bacteria seem to fit directly – it does not evolve to cause illness," he said. "We did not see antibiotic resistance or agility in bacteria in the space station".
Without a doubt, it is a great news for the future of astronauts in order to participate in the current tourist tourism space. In both cases, crews survive, work, and in general capsules or small modules, when there is no ventilation, and air circulates for a long time.
Regarding health risks, the bacterial earth will not change antibiotics in more resistant super-germs. Of course, Hartmann and his colleagues also stressed that this study does not mean that germs can not be increased when they enter a space station or a space station:
"When you go everywhere, you will bring your microbes to you. Astronauts are very healthy people, but when we talk about spreading wider spaces to tourists who are not necessarily astronauts, we do not know what will happen. We can not tell you if someone puts an infection in a closed bubble in space It will not be transferred to other people. When someone is not in an airplane, everyone is sick. "
As always, space exploration causes many risks, and astronauts foresee the possibility of sending longer or more tourist trips to space. Fortunately, the decades of research need to be decorated with the latest experiments and rich experiments.
This study was made possible thanks to the support provided by the Searle Leadership Fund and the National Institute of Health (NIH).
More reading: Northwestern University, mSystems