Sunday , January 24 2021

Chinese leader begins to look at the remote side of the moon – Spaceflight Now



Yutu Yuta 2 China drives Chang & # 39; e 4 landing platform on the far side of the moon. Credit: CNSA / CASC / CLEP

Chang & # 39; e 4 nuclear robot space called the polarized ankle was moved and stopped a touch controlled by the remote part of the moon, the first in the history of space exploration. The Farther expanded a small plane to explore the surrounding landscape.

The nucleus was landed at 0226 GMT on January 3 (9:26 p.m. EST, January 2) on the moon's length 110 km wide (180 kilometers) in the Von Karman crater, located in the southern hemisphere. The Chinese websites extracted several images taken during the earthquake's descent, and later they took out more photos of the six-wheeled vehicle, driving a ramp and moving it to the lunar surface.

But China's state television program did not offer live broadcasting, and reporters and space enthusiasts remained in the dark, awaiting basic updates published in China's Weibo social accounts. The Chinese media also released a few updates on the mission, from December 7, on the Long March 3B rocket.

In the end, Chinese officials asserted that after a successful landing, television news networks in the country had a lot of success in some significant broadcasts and stories. According to the Xinhua New Agency, Chang & # 39; e 4 missions arrived at the landing site targeted at Thursday 10:30 p.m.

In general, Chang & # 39; e 4 landed on the surface of the Moon in 20th.

A press release from China's Aerospace Science and Technology Corp., China, or US Space Program, said Changing the 4-space liquid-fueled variable fueled gas station 0215 at the start of GMT. Approximately 9 kilometers (15 kilometers) above the moon. The earth has made its horizontal speed 3,800 kilometers (1.7 km) per second from zero to zero and afterwards the vertical orientation has been modified to start a vertical descent by suppressing four-stroke counter-shock shocks.

On the far side of the far side of the moon, Chinese officials add Changing the # 4 mission career to a more vertical profile on Changing # 3, which was touched by the lunar lake in China near 2013.

"We have chosen a vertical descent strategy to prevent the impact of aircraft mounds," said Zhang He, Chang & # 39; e 4th Project Development Executive Director at the Chinese Academy Technology Center, in a report published in Xinhua. news agency

Changing # 4 and a downward camera set captured 5,500 meters of altitude or 2 kilometers of altitude, such as the big barriers to stone or crater. The Earth slowed its automatic descent to 330 meters (100 meters) tall, to look for smaller obstacles and measure the slope of the surface. Then, algorithms to avoid risk were used to determine the safest place, according to Xinhua.

Chang & # 39; e 4 took the first image on the far side of the moon around 0340 GMT, January 3 (10:40 p.m. EST, January 2), showing a small crater in the foreground.

The first picture taken from the far side of the moon, Chang & # 39; e 4 after the land. Credit: CNSA / CASC / CLEP

The mission vehicle was named Yutu 2, after a mobile robot called Yutu, Chang & # 3; 3 mission went to the moon in 2013. Yutu means "Chinese jade rabbit" and the name of the lunar baby rabbit is China's folklore, the Chinese lunar missions.

Chang & # 39; e 4 uses Chang & # 39; e 3 spare parts for lunar landings and vehicles.

Yutu vehicles decided to land a few weeks after landing, but some craft tools worked for a long time, and last year the station, the carrier's modulus, operated on the surface of the submarine. to an update by the official Chinese newspapers. Changtu 3's Yutu vehicle was designed to drive more than 10 kilometers, but only traveled 374 meters (114m) from mobile loss due to hardware failure, according to Chinese scientists.

The Yutu 2 vehicle is faster, faster, stronger and more reliable than its predecessors.

"To solve this problem, the main challenge for the development of a new vehicle is not once again," said Zhang Yuhua, a senior publisher, in a story published in Xinhua.

"We have improved the design of the new wireless vehicle and we have taken measures to prevent short circuits, and we have also made a design of the defective isolation, if there is a problem, the system will not affect", said Sun Zezhou Chang & # 39; e 4-year-old main designer Xinhua According to

Yutu 2 vehicles move from 4-meter to 1422 GMT (9:22 a.m. EST) on January 3, according to CASC.

"There are successful missions beside the moon, including Chang & # 3; in Mare Imbrium," said Jun Huang, a Geosciences scientist at the University of China Science Institute, in a presentation by US scientists. March at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Texas. "This mission lasted almost five years, and we have increased the knowledge about the moon, but we have not (Chang & # 39; e 4) a mission to take measurements of remote measurement of the moon."

There are substantial differences between Chang & # 39; e 3 and Chang & # 39; 4. For example, Chang & # 4; s mission does not make a robotic arm or an X-ray spectrometer active, a tool that is able to measure chemical elements in the lunar rocks and soil.

On a top-of-the-box station and vehicle station, Chang's # 4 missions provided a new set of sensors on the surface, some of which were provided by European scientists.

The 2,600-pound freestanding module (1,200 kilograms) uses a low-frequency radio-spectrum for a Chinese scientist to study astrophysics. The Neuron Neuron Neuron and Neuron Neuron Neuron Measuring Radiation Level in Changing # 4 on landing, gathering information that may be useful for the development of lunar remote exploration, solar activity and groundwater Von Karman crater content may be useful.

Changing # 4 Yutu 2 wheels have a weight of 297 kilograms (135 kilograms), higher than 4 kilograms (2 kilograms) more than Changtu 3 Yutu vehicles. It's a lighter weight, especially when driven by the removal of the robot arm, officials said.

Yutu saw a close view of one of the 2-wheel wheels, leaving Chang's # 4 landing platform. Credit: CNSA / CASC / CLEP

Yutu 2 is a radar that penetrates into the earth's surface to study the geologic layers underground, and collect visible and close spectrometer data on soil composition. Chinese officials acknowledged a Swedish operator to study the interaction between the Sun's wind and the moon's surface. The bombardment of particle-generated particles does not protect against the atmosphere.

Chang & # 39; e 4 also lent the moon a student-designed bearer with potato seeds and silk eggs. University students and scientists will monitor the growth of organisms, located in a room and fed by natural lighting and nutrients.

Scientists from the United States also talked about this year's summer, Junek Chang & # 39; e 4's biological experiment is said to be "very unique and interesting."

"It will be part of the micro-ecosystem," Jun said. "There are some vegetables and some worms, I think it will be a good astrobial demonstration."

Jun said experiments on seeds and eggs on flat surface stores also helped engage in public interest.

Chang & # 39; e 4 vehicle improvements could have the potential to reach the 3rd design goal, which is to drive the lunar surface more than 6 kilometers, according to Jun.

Xinhua Yutu 2 vehicles has designed a three-month life span and can handle more than 8 inches (20 centimeters) tall. Its maximum speed is one tenth of a mile per hour (200 meters per hour), and the vehicle will hibernate in 14 long nights of lunar night, which will begin in mid-January.

Changes made to Chang & # 39; e 4, such as the Harbin Technology Institute, Zhongshan University and Chongqing Science and Technology University, according to the Chinese National Space Administration.

"The earth's polishing and gentle exploration, before it's ever done before, will get information on Earth and Earth's components and other scientific data, which will help to understand the moon and the universe." Zhang He, Chang & # 4; and 4-D project executive director, in a report published in Xinhua.

Chang & # 39; e 4 landing area is 177.6 degrees east longitude and is 45.5 degrees south, officials said.

To sum it up, the South Pole-Aitken Basin appears in shades and blues tones on this map of relief on the Moon's face, using NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter data in 180 degrees. Von Kármán crater is tagged. Credit: NASA / GSFC / DLR / ASU

Scientists believe that it is closer to the moon's far side, and the US team has proposed that NASA wants to send a robotic mission to the South Pole Pond Basin, Changing # 4 near the landing site – to throw samples and take them to Earth. The South Ossetian basin region has a great deal of attention on the southern hemisphere of the moon and scientists believe that it was one of the oldest impacts of the solar system when a large asteroid or comet shook the moon.

The return of the sample from the region may have an impact and researchers scientists investigated that Lurrak and Moon were smaller objects millions of millions of years ago, said Bradley Jolliff, a geologist at the University of St. Louis, who has proposed this mission to fund the NASA space agency's New Frontiers cooperation missions line.

But NASA does not accept the development of the remote part of the moon, and the lunar reconnaissance orbiter, the only nuclear space in the US that explores the moon, has been curious since the Earth's moon since 2009. The LRO forces Chang & # 39; more than 4 to force landing at the end of January, and the camera's crust surface can be seen.

The first images of the remote side of the moon The Moon 3 of the Soviet Union returned in 1959 and the first humans saw the astrologers Apollo 8, in December 1968, searched the moon.

Jim Bridenstine, the NASA Administrator, happily congratulated China's square.

"Congratulations to China Chang's 4 team, it seems to be a landing land far away from the moon, this is the first humanity and spectacular achievement!" Wrote Bridenstine.

A special reference satellite was launched to communicate with Chang & # 39; e

The moon is locked on the ground, so the same side of the moon surface is always facing our planet. It is one of the critical challenges of sending a distant mission on the moon, communications that are always far away from the Earth in the hemisphere.

China in China and Chang & # 4; and 4 spacecraft have launched a satelite satellite radio relay out of direct radio station to overcome signals called Queqiao. Queqiao means "rocket bridge" in Chinese, Lagrange, a moon-moon, located on the gravitational balance on the "Earth's orbital ocean" (about 40,000 miles and 65,000 kilometers).

In this place, the combined effect of earth and moon gravity moves Queqiao flat to the moon, forming another 28-day orbit on the planet.

Queqiao space data structure of Earth and Change 4 land and vehicle interaction. Credit: CASC

Chang & # 39; e 4 is the ultimate goal of the second phase of Chinese exploration. The first lunar mission in China – Chang & # 1; It started in 2007 and the moon was analyzed from the lunar orbit a year earlier than in 2009. He launched the Changing # 2 orbiter in 2010, the moon explored for several months and then flown to the Library point further, and the 2012 Earth Asteroid fled the Earth-moon system, the first Chinese space program.

After Changing # 3 and Changing # 4 and 4 lunar landing missions, China wants to start Changing the 5 nuclei at the end of 2019, getting out of the ground next to the moon, collecting samples and returning Earth samples. The return of the sample would be the return of the Earth's first material from the Soviet Union's Moon 24 mission since 1976.

China launched a prototype capsule on the moon and returned to Earth on the Earth in 2014, to reverse its ability to re-enter the space from deep space, placing the spacecraft at higher speeds and at higher temperatures than the Earth's low orbit input again. The Chang & # 5; 5 T1 pioneer mission was successful.

The Changing # 6 tracking mission, using Chang & # 5; and 5 spare components, was able to avoid remote sample sample from the moon at the beginning of 2020, and China is developing long-term plans to send human beings. The moon in 2030.

He is also working on China Speedboat to launch in 2020.

China's boost in international cooperation in space

In Germany's Kiel University and the Swedish Institute of Physics, the Changing # 4 of the 4 instruments will reach international land tenure for the first time.

China's Queqiao data relay craftsman also carries out international scientific burden. Dutch scientists developed a low-frequency radio station on Queqiao's plane to explore future observations of future future astronomy looking at the moon, taking advantage of an "interactive moon" interference space where natural moons and Human Emissions from Earth and Earth's broadcasts .

Two tech demo microsatellite also began with Queqiao this year, each with its radio astronomy loads and optical cameras with Saudi Arabia. A small space carrier did not enter the satellite orbit, but another came to Earth to the moon and beamed.

Zhang Kejian, the Chinese National Space Administration or head of the CNSA, said Queqiao's satellite satellite reported that the future lunar missions of other countries could be used far away from the moon. Zhang also announced at the International Astronomy Congress in Bremen in Germany, with 22 kilograms or 10 kilograms of cargo capacity in Chang & # 39; e 6 missions, thanks to tools provided by non-Chinese organizations.

International science experiments will also be at the China space station, which will end in 2022, Zhang said.

"International participation is welcomed by the Chinese space station of scientific research," Zhang said in October. "Mars and the CNSA planetary missions are also underway, and we look forward to having this international cooperation".

US scientists used the image of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, or the LROC, Changing # 4 landing tool. Image Image Shows a downward downward view of Chang & # 39; s camera, and scientists have identified craters that can see images in both photos. Credit: NASA / GSFC / Arizona State University

With the aim of spreading collaborations with the space space in the European space agencies, NASA is prohibited from cooperating with China for spatial exploration. Former Frank Wolf, R-Virginia, a provision in 2011 of a NASA financing action – and still in force – is a space agency that forbids most of China's collaborative ways, for example, a direct agreement to protect the missions of each nation.

At the same meeting at the Bremen Space Industry, the NASA chief said the Chinese military space is striving, but the space-space space program has expanded.

"It's a concern for United States government," Bridenstin said, improving military space in China and beyond the boundary between civilian and military space programs. "From NASA's perspective, the United States allows us to cooperate with the common interests where there are common interests and there are areas with common interests."

The United States and China scientists continue to share data, and some non-governmental organizations have conducted technical interviews and data exchange among leading researchers in NASA and China's space mission.

"We can collaborate on data and make amazing scientific experiments," said Bridenstin, former Oklahoma Councils, in October. "They go to the far side of the moon, and the United States is making amazing scientific experiments, and we can share data and cooperate in this way, so each country can learn more science, which should be the first confidence building measure, the next step to establish the necessary types of relationships ".

Bridenstine also underlined the importance of working together to limit space debris across the Earth's power, including China, and the fact that satellites do not interfere or interfere with each other.

"There is no predictability of the planet, which is related to space, which is more important for everyone to face this issue," said Bridenstin. "We need to take care of the future environment of the space, and the only international way to cooperate with mitochondria is, and ultimately spatial awareness and management of space traffic, as well as the reconsideration of orbital waste, so I think they will work properly."

"We already collaborate," Bridenstine said. "I think there are more ways to collaborate, but we need to build confidence even more in the future."

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Follow Stephen Clark on Twitter: @ StephenClark1.


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