Wednesday , September 28 2022

Early stress in pests has led to the decline of the Neolithic European



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Researchers from France, Sweden and Denmark have identified a new stress on Yersinia pestis, a bacterium that causes pests, DNA extracted from 5,000 human beings.

Examinations have been published on December 6 Handheld, suggests that this voltage is closest to the genetic origin of pests. Their work also suggests that this pest could be spread among traders European Neoliths, due to the decline in Bronze Age days.

"Plague is one of the deadliest bacterial organisms ever, and if you think it's a" pest ", Y. pestis may say this infection, but the trauma pests can also lead to our history as a whole, as well as any epidemic. The types of pathogens translate over time and how we have developed the pathogen that has had a significant impact, "says senior secretary Simon Rasmussen (@simonrasmu), a researcher at Metagenomics from the Danish Technical University and the Copenhagen University.

To better understand the history of pests, Rasmussen and his colleagues had public genetically useful genetic antimicrobials to detect sequences such as more modern pests. They found a strain that they had never seen in Sweden, a female genital material of 20 years in which she died approximately 5,000 years ago. Tensions that had the same genes that could present the pituitary pituitary today, and traces were found in another place in the same tomb, that the young man was dying of the disease.

This plague is the oldest ever discovered. But it is particularly interesting, compared to other voltages, that the researchers are also the closest tension near Y. pestis, the closest genetic origin of Y. pestis. It is likely that far away from the previous 5,700 years of stress, ordinary Bronze Age pests and current pest predispositions were 5,300 and 5,100 years respectively. This suggests that the plague had several volumes that existed during the Neolithic era.

Rasmussen thinks that this discovery offers a new theory that spreads the pests. Downward Europe The European Migration Eurasian mass migrations occurred about 5,000 years ago. However, those cultures that have already been exposed to the disappearance of the Neolithic agricultural culture in Europe are still under discussion. Previous investigators suggested that invaders had plagued the pests, after deleting the great footprints of Stone Age farmers.

But while the tension caused by the pestilence of researchers found in Sweden by the rest of Y. pestis has been diverted more than 5,000 years ago, they started to migrate and the European Neolithic settlements began to decline at that time.

At that time, the mega-settlements of 10,000-20,000 inhabitants became in Europe, with job specialization, new technologies and possible trade. But it could also be a growth of pests. "These megawatts were one of the highest in Europe at that time, which was ten times higher, people linked together with animals and food stores, and possibly very poor sanitation, which is an example of the evolution of how to evolve new pathogens. "said Rasmussen.

"We believe that our data conforms to the fact that if the pests evolve in mega settlements, when people began to die, the settlements would be abandoned and destroyed, specifically 5,500 years later, in those settlements, as well as the commercial traffic- they should continue to migrate all the roads, as it has spread rapidly throughout Europe, "he says.

In the end, he suggests that the plague would come through trade interactions in a small settlement in Sweden, the woman learned to live in her group. Rasmussen argues that the woman's DNA also offers other evidence to this theory; It is not genetically linked to people affected by Europe with the Eurasian state, that is, the plague of the plague had reached before mass migrations. Archeology also accepts this hypothesis, where the signs of the invaders were not killed.

Of course, there are some limitations that explain the data of the study. Most importantly, researchers have not yet identified pests as people from mega-settlements. "We have not found a burning gun, but it has not yet been seen. And we wanted to do it, because we could find a pest in these settlements, which would help this theory," says Rasmussen.

However, he believes that this study is a step towards understanding plague and other pathogens, which was deadly. "We often think that these superpathogens have always been around, but that's not the case," he says. "The pests have come from a relatively harmless organism, recently, the same thing happens with snail, malaria, Ebola and Sick. This process is very dynamic and is happening. It's really interesting to think that something we waste is becoming something very tidy."

CELL PRESS

Header Image – This image shows a trace of a 20-year-old woman (Gokhem2), which was killed by an epidemic pandemic for the first time around 4900 BP. He was the victim of an epidemic pandemic, leading to a decline in Neolithic society in Europe. Credit: Karl-Göran Sjögren / University of Gothenburg

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