Researchers have had a unique opportunity according to the conditions of the International Space Station, by comparing gene expression expression comparisons with the same twin astronauts. One couple spent one year in space, while the other stayed on Earth.
In the expression of the genes induced in the space station environment through a process called epigenetic changes.
NASA scientists will know that astronauts will not be different from physical stressors. The study of genetic origin of astronauts is why others may suffer more health problems when they return to Earth. These findings can create customized preventive measures for astronauts vulnerable.
Surprisingly, these discoveries seem to develop the traditional therapies of the syndromes that affect terrestrial therapy.
NASA explores the human effects of space travel in space age space. The International Space Station (ISS) said on Tuesday, Tuesday afternoon, Tuesday Tuesday Wednesday night "unfortunately" and "he felt a big red whirlwind …" he said. monkey bars "The basis of this uncomfortable feeling is the redistribution of fluid from the upper body.
Long-term mission health
The health consequences of long space missions are not well understood. In general, astronauts continue to be an excellent mental and physical health with the general population, as well as the return of long-term missions. However, the health effects of these missions have been acknowledged, such as cardiovascular decomposition and visual problems, investigating their causes.
NASA scientists explore how genes express themselves: DNA is becoming tissue. Epigenetic field describes mechanisms, such as environmental factors, such as microgravity, high carbon dioxide levels and possible radiation overloads that alter DNA reading.
Researchers also want to know that the only DNA of the astronauts will determine the response to the space station's environment. For the time being, 37 studies in the space station have focused on three genetic research.
The results of the excellent analyzes of the astronauts' twin pairs have resulted in spatial trips affecting the gender expression in different organs. Between 2015 and 2016, astronaut Scott Kelly made 340 consecutive days with ISS. His twin brothers left Mark Ground. Scott's basic genetic code was not altered, but the space station's environment became a hundred.
According to two scientists surveyed by Christopher Mason, these changes were a major biological pathway for bone formation and immune systems. Changes in the expression of the genes were classified as possible in the case of "low, medium or high".
Small risks according to gene expression (about 93% of all changes) are usually reset, when Scott returned to Earth. Possible risks of medium and high risk were not changed after six months and "we want to be aware of the changes," said Mason. For example, a "high alert" is the expression change that causes the immune system, says Mason.
When two twins are identical, the effect of space provides the best evidence in gene expression, astronauts twins are not around.
The validation of the Kelly Twins discovery will be necessary in other astronauts studies. Right now, the International Space Station is conducting validation tests for liquid biopsy (DNA DNA and RNA samples from the blood). But the twins experiment was a "starting point for all the postgraduate students", said Mason.
Eye health research suggests that a astronauts team suggest that astronauts do not respond in a similar way to the life of the space station. Astronauts Astronauts is a condition that affects ophthalmology astronauts. These ocular changes are classified by NASA as "significant risk to human space travelers" and include changes in the lens and shape shapes.
In some cases, astronauts who have an excellent vision before the space flight force "wearing glasses," says Scott Smith, NASA's chief nutrition biochemist.
"We used samples of blood samples (astronautics) before the flight, we started looking for genetics."
Twenty-two astronauts gave blood samples for research. According to the analysis, the discovery of research suggests that each genetic background of the astronauts suggest the weakness of their eyes or the epigenetic response to determine the harmful agents in the space station.
Space eyes and Earth wombs
This research means that certain astronauts could warn the personal risks that vision problems might pose during the long-term missions. In addition, personalized preventative measures or personalized medicine can be found and implemented for those with the greatest risk of illness.
"Nearly all NASA's work has implications for the general population," says Smithe.
When astronauts' ophthalmic syndrome is associated with another problem, the problem is on Earth. Reverse genetic and changes in serum factor associated with ocular problems of astronauts are also associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), in order to detect infertility in women.
PCOS affects 10% of females. The genetic component of this syndrome was previously suspected.
The astronauts' genetic and epigenetic studies provide astronauts for space-based intervention in personalized interventions. In addition, they offer potential therapies.
Christine Bear is a professor at the University of the Faculty of Medicine of Toronto.
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