Monday , January 24 2022

Non-ethical experiments & # 39; painful contributions to current medicine


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Experiments continue to blend in with his claims and the uncertainty of his being, open a question mark on Pandora's ethics with humans, although these are not new.

These experiments have been criticized in advanced medicine and ethical codes and codes of ethics, such as the Nuremberg code.

When the claim was made by genetically modified humans, the response to the global community of doctors was rapidly condemned.

"The question is not an interruption to the experiment," said Jing Bao Nie, professor of bioethics at the University of Otago in New Zealand. "Editing of genetic measurement, non-ethical implementation".

Sarah Chan, director of the University of Medicine, Life Sciences and Law of the Mason Institute in Edinburgh, excludes risks and benefits to justify this experiment. The genome embryo edition is still not fully established, and "all scientists hardly know that we still recommend clinically enough progress".

The experience of scientists, twins, and geneticists went too far

In the case of a serious illness, if it were to cause severe pain, the only way to alleviate pain would be a dangerous experimental procedure, and Chan believes that "if we give great benefit, we could justify this risk."

As far as medical ethics is concerned, the different principles must weigh each other through the institutional analysis committee, on the participation of human participants in the experiments.

Defining medical ethics

Medical etiquette and researchers are usually seven general rules involving human ethical experiments, says Govind Persad, assistant professor at the University of Denver.

Experiments should be socially and scientifically useful values ​​and that people should be respected and respected. The risks and benefits to the participants and the benefits of society must be weighed against each other and the ethics of the experiment must be independent outside, said Persad.

Risk and benefits include third parties in some equations, such as "Persp", others who do not have "shed" and infectious vaccines, for example. It is an example of a vaccine-based vaccine study.

In fact, if the experiment has had any mutation, it could be transmitted to the twin children and then spread to the general population, which has not allowed this change, and Persad explained.

"I do not know how much danger there is," said Persad. "Again, it depends on the mutation odds to determine whether the mutation will be selected after the population or over time."

Many national and international protocols, such as the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights and Bioethics 2005, have referred to some of these seven principles, said Persad. As in most international documents, these protocols are not legally binding.

The first paper describes how to conduct fair investigations, it was the Nazi warfare product.

Nuremberg Trials started on November 20, 1945 in Germany.
In the 1940s Nazi physicians carried out human experiments on prisoners in the concentration camps. All these experiments, described by the Jewish Virtual Library as "torture acts", were put at risk by prisoners, mutilation and pain were overwhelming, and many experiments had serious results. Most popular, Dr. Josef Mengele was interested in twins, and he undertook a "dying and often deadly" investigation.

Renate Guttmann was one of the "Mengele Twins" according to the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, who did experiments, such as vomiting and diarrhea, and blood on her neck.

Thirty Nazi doctors were punished in 1945-46 in Nuremberg trials. The process brought the first ethics document, the Nuremberg Code, to a 10-point statement on ethical scientific research.
The Holocaust survived and the trauma separated by parents always lasts

But some doctors thought that this code was not applied.

Fifteen years later, a pediatric doctor, Saul Krugman, did something about hepatitis active at Willowbrook State School, in Staten Island, New York, for children with intellectual disabilities. Krugman found that over 90% of children were infected at school.
Hepatitis recruitment was "inevitable" and "predictive" due to poor hygiene due to poor schooling, according to Krugman's first study and colleagues at Willowbrook. He tried to develop a vaccine, and parents consented and asked for permission.

Krugman's experiment has known about the two tensions of hepatitis: A and B – and how to distribute these expansions through the oral oral route and the contact and transfer of B-fluid bodies. Fifteen years later, he developed a prototype of hepatitis B.

In his paper, Krugman criticizes the fact that the ends do not justify the resources, but believes that he does not believe that he is applying his own job, that all children in the school have a constant risk of acquiring hepatitis.

Does the human head transplant coming soon?
The following discussion emphasized that the main ethical question about Krugman's work can be to accept a risky person's experience, in this case Willowbrook students, who do not see any benefits.

Kelly Edwards, professor of bioethics at the University of Washington, wants to achieve the balance that the risks and benefits of the experiment require. "This is a group of people who are already suffering," he says, which led researchers to explore these populations, to help others. "But we're still taking advantage of a group that suffers people."

Nowadays, there are other methods that have led to the same result. However, the vaccine was achieved ethically and we are using "taught data" – results obtained from non-ethical experiments. Edwards says that he asks for admission recognition to "children who helped this knowledge".

Mine past medical

The need for accusation and compensation is found in a prestigious ethical experiment to analyze Tuskegee syphilis. Syphilis was one of the major problems of the 1920s, and so in 1932, the US Public Health Services and the Alabama Tuskegee Institute recorded a natural progression of the disease.

In the study, 600 black men were seen, of which 201 were not the disease. Participants were encouraged to provide free medical examinations, meals and burial insurances. But they were not informed about what they were investigating; Instead, they said they would receive treatment for "bad blood" – the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said that it was used to describe some diseases, syphilis, anemia and fatigue.

Diseases caused were not treated with syphilis, although penicillin was effective in 1947.

After 1972 research reports, he was appointed a counselor to study Tuskegee. As a result, this knowledge was "small" in front of the subjects. The study ended in October of that year.

Shortly afterwards, the class action lawsuit was presented on behalf of the participants and their families. A $ 10 million settlement has arrived.

The Tuskegee Health Benefit Program was established to pay compensation, such as life benefits and burial services for living participants and their wives and children. President Bill Clinton called for apology in 1997.
The history of evil is made up of African Americans

Edwards used ethical medicines and vaccines for conventional use, "some of which are not in our conscience."

The birth control pill was checked in 1955 because Puerto Rican women did not report that they were taking part in a clinical trial or had an experimental pill and had a dangerous side effect.
Belmont's 1979 report on ethical guidelines for scientific research was recognized by the United States law and, therefore, by these unlawful experiments.

The Belmont Reports Committee also wrote reports on specific topics, one of which was in the use of prisoners in experiments. "The practice of using prisoners populations has been very widespread," said Edwards, in order to send debts to society.

Prints were a place where experiments were used at the Holmesburg Prison in Philadelphia in the 1950s. Dr. Albert M. Kligman, a renowned dermatologist, renowned for its Patent Retin-A for acute treatment, has conducted several tests on these prisoners. Retin-A is partially based on the experiments of prisoners in Holmesburg Kligman, according to a report. Some investigate the reaction of dangerous chemicals, such as dioxin, Agent Orange components, removing minor thumbnails, reacting to the tooth problems, or infected kidney infections.
Prisoner of Holmesburg, in north-eastern Philadelphia, in 1970.
The psychiatrist at Holmesburg, at the same time, at Kligman, all those who were being treated for rehearsals, antibiotics and Johnson & Johnson's teeth and toothpicks, according to Sana Loue, "Research Ethics: Theory and Practice Textbook ".

These experiments involved how the prisoners made a way to make money and control, Loue said.

Because Prisoners does not have the ability to give their consent because their lives are completely controlled by others and is a risk of coerciveness, the Edgar said that it has inspired Belmont's report to discourage this weak population.

Ethics today and the future

The reports that followed these experiments were used to prepare laws and government bodies, such as the institutional review boards. These committees are composed of representatives of organizations that wish to carry out the experiment and a representative without a scientific community; they decide whether they will be ethical or not.

Edwards provides an in-depth review of the institutional review committee. Continuing ethics for reviewing ethics continues throughout experiments, such as data tracking, especially in clinical trials. This monitoring tool can stop any experiment at any time.

Chan also sees more controversy around ethics. The experiment is the second highest peak in Hong Kong's international human genome, where he publicly defended his work, "it is a real will to be seriously debated" [and] Both benefits must be taken into account, but careful consideration must be given to the conditions that these technologies must use, "he said.
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