By day, Neonothopanus nambi brown mushroom is optimistic But a surprise hides a drab facade behind it: at night, the fungus illuminates the dark green. Neonothopanus nambi It is among the 100 species of mushrooms that emit light. Aristotle has already documented this phenomenon called bioluminescence, when it was glowing, when it rotted. Now scientists have identified biochemistry pathways for the light bioluminescent fungi for the first time. But they went even further: the three genes that produce luminescence become yeast-friendly, create an artificially luminous eukaryotic. Fyodor Kondrashov, lecturer at the Institute of Austrian Science and Technology (IST Austria), has been the author of the study. PNAS, Led by Ilia Yampolsky at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry at the Russian Academy of Moscow Academy.
Suffolk flirting and glowing mushrooms on the wood floor can be watched overnight at night in the deep Brazilian forest. Both of these are due to the biolumence process, they are like night lights, a natural phenomenon, by which the oxygen enzyme called luciferin is oxidized with the help of light emission. Bioluminescence is found among many species, worms, gluten and sea fish. Until now, the biochemical pathway for luciferine was not bacterial in the organism. This lack of knowledge prevents larger organisms, like animals and plants, shimmering. Now, Fyodor Kondrashov, led by Ilia Yampolsky, led by Louisa Gonzalez Somermeyer and former member of Karen Sarkisyan, led by the collaboration of the twelve different institutions, identified how the eukaryotes Neonothopanus nambi illuminating
Scientists have discovered key genes responsible for biolumination Neonothopanus nambi. Using the library screening and genome analysis, the team identified the enzymes that help the synthesis of luciferine. The essential luciferin, the bioluminescence reaction substrate, is just one enzyme called metabolite known as the enzymatic, in addition to the acidic acid that causes the fungus. Comparing the mushrooms unknown to Kondrashov's team, gene duplication evolved bioluminescence more than a hundred million years ago. Why is it still clear, says Kondrashov: "It's just a beneficial bioluminescence or a side-product? We do not know yet. There's clearness that glare attracts insects that distribute spores. But I do not believe it's convincing."
In order to find out how bright the bioluminescent fungus is, the researchers have stimulated non-bioluminescent eukaryotes. Enter the genetic coding gene Neonothopanus nambi With three other genes, their products are composed of strings that make the chain of metabolic sugar, in the reaction substrate, luciferin, yeast Pichia Pastoris As a result, bright yeast colonies. "We do not supply chemicals that make the yeast shine. Instead, we supply enzymes to make yeast yeast that is already a metabolic product," explained Kondrashov.
This finding can create widespread applications to create glowing animals and plants from tissues that revise physiological changes. "If we think of science-fiction scenery, plants that replace light-emitting lights make clear that" Kondrashov concludes. "But it may take several years until it is designed by a street light."
Institute of Science and Technology in Austria. .