Almost 48 years after it was collected, scientists believe that a rock sample taken during an Apollo mission to the moon originated from Earth roughly four billion years ago.
From Apollo 11 – the first mission to land on the moon – to the final Apollo 17 mission, astronauts visiting the moon were tasked with many scientific objectives, including collecting rocks to bring back for analysis.
The team of scientists published Their findings in the Earth and Planetary Science Letters journal used new technology to study a two-gram sample of moon rock collected by the Apollo 14 astronauts in 1971. Their findings suggest that, instead of the rock originating on the moon, it came from Earth four billion years ago.
The researchers believe that the rock sample is a type of feldspar, which is composed of feldspar, quartz and a tiny bit of zircon. It's similar to granite, which is the type of rock that forms continents. Scientists believe that it is produced through plate tectonics, the way Earth's outer crust moves. It is very unusual to find it on the moon.
The findings suggest that the best explanation for the existence of that type of rock on the moon is that it's not from the moon at all. It's from Earth.
Surviving many blasts
Chemical analysis of the fragment revealed it had crystallized. The scientists suggest conditions on Earth just about 20 kilometers below the surface about four to 4.1 billion years ago, could have caused this process.
"It was confirmation that we had something granitic and that we had big enough impact events to launch things from the Earth," says co-author David A. Kring, principal investigator at the Center for Lunar Science and Exploration at the Lunar and Planetary Institute . "It's amazing that the rock survived."
It's amazing because this particular sample underwent three significant impacts. The solar system was rife with large bodies that were zipping around the sun as planets and moons were forming. Around this time – referred to the Late Heavy Bombardment Period – it's believed Earth was being blasted with debris.
Shortly after our planet's formation, several large bodies, such as an asteroid or comet, slammed into Earth, eventually displacing the rock and sending it into space. It reached the lunar surface. The moon would have been 2.8 times closer to Earth than it is today.
Once there, the theory goes, it survived subsequent impact events including one roughly 3.9 billion years ago, when a large impact partly melted the rock, and it was likely buried beneath the moon's surface in the Basin Imbrium.
But it would not stay there.
There was another big impact in the region that sent the fragment roughly 200 kilometers from its landing location.
And finally, the researchers theorize that about 26 million years ago, an asteroid impacted the moon, creating the 340-meter diameter Cone Crater, bringing it back up to the surface where the astronauts found it.
A less likely explanation
There could be another explanation, albeit less likely, the scientists say.
The rock could have crystallized on the moon. However, it would have been 130 km below the surface, which would place it in the moon's mantle, something that would require a completely different understanding of the moon than we currently have.
Gordon (Oz) Osinski, director of the Canadian Lunar Research Network and professor at Western University's departments of earth sciences and physics and astronomy, believes that the explanation of the researchers is the most plausible.
"It's totally feasible, and there have been some papers over the last several decades that this is possible, and this particular one, they definitely present some convincing evidence," he says.
"Hopefully this will spur an interest in people looking at another similar [samples] in the Apollo collection. "
Most of the rocks on Earth are younger than four billion years old, and both scientists say that, in order to determine how our planet formed, finding these older rocks is key.
With NASA's recent attention on returning humans to the moon, Kring hopes more samples will be collected. And that, he says, will help us learn about our early solar system, and thus, ourselves.
"The larger number of samples that we find, the better picture we'll paint of the early Earth," says Kring. "And I think we are all interested in the origin and early evolution of our planet. And there's no doubt the best record of those processes are on the moon."