As far as space is concerned, nanotechnology-based spacecraft, the Clemson University scientists have measured all the stars in the history of the observable universe.
Astrophysicists believe that our universe, about 13.7 million years ago, had hundreds of millions of years old in the first stars. Since then, it has become a career in a star of the universe. Today there are about two billion galaxies and trillion trillion stars. Using new Starlight measurement methods, Clemson College of Science astrophysicist Marco Ajello and his team studied NASA's Fermin Gamma-ray telescope data to determine the history of the formation of stars in the life of the universe.
A study paper on the "determination of the gamma-ray nature of the universe formation of the universe" was published on November 30 in the journal. Science and describes the results and trends of the new group's measurement process.
"From the data collected by the Fermi telescope, we could measure the total number of stars we have ever seen before," said Ajello, the principal author of the paper. "Most of this light emits stars that reside in the galaxies, which has helped to better understand the evolution of the star's evolution and captivate the universe to find out how bright content has been created."
The number of stars generated by the number of times it has several variables with quantification difficulties in simple terms. But according to the new measurement, the number of photons emitted by stars (visible light particles) is returned to 4 × 10 ^ 84.
Or, in other words, 4,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 photons.
Although huge numbers are very interesting, except for the sun that comes from our sun and the galaxy, the other stars that reach the Earth are very scarce – 60 watt light bulb is 2.5 km away. This is because the universe is almost incomprehensible. That's why the sky is dark at night, like bright moon, spectacular stars, and bright lights like the Milky Way.
The Fermi Gamma ray space telescope was launched on June 11, 2008, and started 10 years ago. It is a powerful observatory and a gamma ray (the strongest energy form of light) has provided tremendous amounts of data, and is a rigid fog with ultraviolet light, visual and infrared light, interactive light-extractable light (EBL). They are emitted from stars or dusty ones. Dr. Aiello and Dr. Vaidehi Paliya analyzed about 739 Blazars about nine years of gamma ray signals.
Blazers are galaxies, with supermassive black holes that release small structures of energy particles, jumping across calaxies and cosmities at almost the speed of light. When one of these airplanes appears on the ground directly, although it is very far away, it is detectable. Ultraviolet rays of the gas rays hit the cosmic cloud, leaving the trace of the observer. Thus, the group of Ajellos is not measured in a certain place, as well as in a certain moment in the history of the universe.
"Gamma ray photos are traveling through a cloud of clouds with high probability of absorption," said Ajello, an assistant professor of physics and astronomy. "We measured how many photograms were measured in photon, how to measure and measure the thickness of the cloud, according to time, there was a lot of light throughout the wavelength."
Using Galaxy Surveys, the star formation of the universe has been exploring for decades. But previous investigations faced an obstacle that some galaxies were too remote or too harsh to detect current telescopes. This is recorded directly by scientists rather than the estimation of stars produced by remote galaxies.
The Ajellos team was able to overcome this fact by using the Fermi telescope data fields, to study the extragalactic backlight. A star fleeing from galaxies, the farthest ones, eventually becomes part of the EBL. For this reason, precise measurements of the cosmic cloud, which have recently become possible, have eliminated the need to calculate light emission from distant galaxies.
Paliya made a gamma ray analysis of 739 blazes, whose black holes gather millions of times more than our massive sun.
"When using blazers at different distances, we have measured the entire starlight all the time," said Paliya from the Physics and Astronomy Department. "We measured the entire star of each period – billion years ago, two million years ago, now six million years ago, etc. This has made it possible to define the history of the universe's reconstruction and reconstruction of the EBL, which is more effective than what was previously achieved."
When high energy gamma rays have low light, they become electrons and positrons. According to NASA, the ability to detect Fermi gamma rays in a wide range of energy shrinks to map the cosmic cloud. Particular interactions take place over horrific cosmic distances, which allows the group of Ajellos to be deeper than ever before in the star-shaped productivity of the universe.
"Scientists have tried to measure EBL for a long time, however, but the brightest shots like the lights of the zodiac (the light scattered on the solar system) were very challenging," said Abhishek Desai, physicist and astronomer. "Our technique for all the foregrounds is not believed, and therefore, to overcome these difficulties at the same time."
The formation of stars, when it comes to forming compact regions of clouds and stars, has prevailed over 11 million years ago. But since the birth of the new star has slowed down, it never stopped. For example, we produce about seven new stars every year on our Milky Way Galaxy.
Nowadays, there is no progress in the implementation of the EBL, but there is a major breakthrough in the evolution of cosmic historical history in this area, members of the Dieter Hartmann team in physics and astronomy.
"The formation of stars is a great part of the cosmic bicycle and recycling of energy, matter and metals. It is the motor of the universe," Hartmann said. "Without the evolution of the stars, we could not have the essential elements for life's existence."
Understanding the formation of stars is also divided into other areas of astronomical analysis, research into cosmic dust, evolution of galaxies and dark matter. The group's future study missions will be guided by a series of earlier days of future development, such as the James Webb Space Telescope to be launched in the next 2021, and allow scientists to build primitive galaxies.
"The first thousand million years of our universe's history are very interesting today's satellites have not studied," said Ajello. "Our measurements give us an insight. Maybe we'll find a way to return to Big Bang one day. This is our ultimate goal."