"The underwater apocalypse of the zombie". That's why Joe Gaydos (UC) wildlife singer in California describes the "disease of the sea star disease," from Mexico to Alaska, with more than 20 species from 20 species dead. Nowadays, new research by Gaydos and colleagues have a lot of bad news: star-star star disease (Pycnopodia helianthoids) Kelp in the woods is a fundamental predator, all of us the toughest. This temporary species has disappeared from its origins, and consequently the emptiness of the waves after being called home by ecosystems. Likewise, the team found a disturbing connection between the harsh temperatures and the severity of the occurrence, so that climate change could increase future sea epidemics.
"These are shocking," said UC Santa Cruz marine environmentalist Mark Carr. "This is not just a reduction of the population, that is to lose a key species of more than thousands of kilometers. We have never seen such a thing."
Wasted seas star disease from a "weird look", "horror movie", only a few days. White lasions appear and expand into the melting tissue wall. Types fall and crawled. In the end, sea-stars disintegrate the mule that disintegrates the flesh.
Scientists have not yet identified the pathogen responsible for the disease. Research suggests that blame is a virus, but this is still unknown. Like the Western coast was like it did in the preceding decades, but no one had such a deadly area. Out of the 20 species caused by the unexpected, laboratories demonstrated that most of the sunflower strain could be exposed.
Underground, 24 star freezer soldiers capture the kelp forest like wild predators. As one of the main predators of vertebrates that maintains equilibrium in outer forest ecosystems. There is no control, the sea urchins can cut kelp forests. The sunrise star was underwater, but since the disappearances and urchins after the bombs, Northern California lost more than 90% of its kelp forests, according to the Fish and Wildlife Department.
The loss of kelp forests has left other famines, homes or dead. In December of 2018, he went to California to prohibit fishing gulliesHaliotis rufescens) After surveys, when molecules consumed kelp molds, death died starving. They are more challenging to quantify fish impacts, but Carr's kelp forests are essential not just as food but also as a habitat, especially for young fish that flee from predators.
To investigate the impact of starfish on a star in the sun, Gayronden Drew Harvell, a member of the Marine Harbor Environmental School at Cornwall University, Friday Harbor, Washington and other groups, has looked at countless star counters who have practically spent about 11,000 deep water. 9000 bottom fishing surveys in deep water. Hundreds of scientists were trained to identify and register the presence of sunflower stars and underwater surveys conducted by the Navy and the National Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) traces on the ships, systematically dragging the sea from the sea to the bottom of the sea. biodiversity
These data sets covered a decade before the collapse of seawater stars and covered more than 3000 kilometers of coastline. Deepwater and in-depth surveys show steady populations, following the large drops in star eclipses, reducing by about 60% in 2013, reducing by 100%. Scientific advances.
"Many people would have to protect the star stars in deep water, where we could not tell them," says Steve Lonhart, a non-researcher at the NOAA forest ecology in Monterey, California. "We had hoped that they were hiding there-research shows that hope was the will."
The loss of sea star disease also reveals that the waters of the California coastline were the hottest months of 2014, 2015 and 2016, according to the NOAA climate research NATO Mantua. If we have a connection between water temperature and disease, the researchers compared the sea temperatures over the hours and locations of the surveys that cover the decline of the sun's star. Their studies found that there was an abnormally warm water due to high mortal deaths and places.
Mantua is co-author of the 2018 paper American Meteorology Association Newsletter Climate change has played a great role in the warming of coastal waters in California from 2014 to 2016. Climate forecast shows that temperatures in the 2050s will be noticeable.
"These outbreaks are very sensitive. In the lab, the starfish soon became ill and hotter faster," says Harvelle. "The warming ocean can cause infectious diseases like this."
Northern California forest kelp forests will hardly recover the sea urchins unless their plagues or their natural predators are recovered. Harvell believes that an astonishing sunflower should consider adding to the List of Endangered Species Species and a formal recovery plan.
"I am now worried about reading this paper," says Lonhart. "We are looking at the disappearance of a common species that was only 5 years old."