STORY WRITTEN FOR CBS NEWS & PERMISSION-USED
After making a six-month trip to Earth, NASA's InSight Mars launcher will take place on a 12,300-mph space on Tuesday in the midst of a thunderclap, to start a nail down below six to a half. After a million dollars mission to test the hidden interior of the red planet.
"InSight's goal is to better understand the Earth's birth, to better understand the birth of our planet, and to move on to Marsen," said Bruce Banerdt Research Principle.
On the floor, tectonic panels and continuous mantles have changed the inside of the planet, darkening its history and evolution. But Mars is a smaller planet and much more active than the Earth, keeping the "fingerprints" prior to these processes.
"By specifying the maps of these territories, these different parts of the planet better understand how the planet was created and how to live and play our planet live and get a good time … So we will go to Mars."
Direct live maneuvering on Sunday afternoon endeavored to gradually get out of InSight's path and ensure shipbuilding known as Elysium Planitia.
But like all Mars's landings, InSight will make a 90 million kilometer drop completely automated from Earth's engineers through direct or indirect control. In fact, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena (California) will receive 8.1-minute radio signals in which scientists and engineers will be waiting to see how emerging space ships successfully.
"We've done everything we've done, we've done what we can think of, we're sure to make it successful," said Tom Hoffman, InSight Project Manager. "But you never know what will happen."
"Aeroshell" is flying on the slopes and the heat shield is protected by generations, InSight will begin Monday at GMT Monday 1947, and braking will last until Earth's gravity force 7.4 times. Slows down and heats up around 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit.
Four minutes later, at 7.5 miles and today's 928 mph supersonium, a 39-meter wide gauge will open, with about 15,000 pounds of square foot. mph or few.
The heat shield will no longer be necessary, to the ground at the bottom of the environment, and then within 10 seconds, three landing legs will be switched on and locked.
A few seconds later, about a minute before touching, the InSight downward look radar will be activated to measure altitude altitude of spaces and decrease the rate of fall and land flight data.
In the end, less than a mile down the surface and 134 km / h, InSight aeroshell and parachute will release to freely fall.
Then a second later, twelve rocket engines will light fire, each with a shot of about 68 kilograms, when lit up 10 times in a second, to prevent a space ship to avoid losing a parachute and aeroshell.
Moving its speed horizontally and about 5 mph, InSight is expected to touch Elysium Planiti around around 1954 GMT, about 2 p.m. Mars local time.
Fifteen minutes later, after waiting for the dust pushed to release the impulse, InSight collects two solar monitors to recharge the batteries of a nuclear power. The Array would generate 1.300 watts of power on the Earth, but Marsen, with its dusty atmosphere, will only handle 300 or 600.
The arrival, descent and landing sequence coincided with the passage of the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. In this way, UHF is scheduled to broadcast radio telemetry radio. It will be stored on the orbit of these data and will be returned to the Earth after about three hours after the touchdown.
Real-time data will start from an experimental space station known as Mars Cube One-MarCO. The first "CubeSats" are to make an interplanetary journey and first-class flight drivers can continue to fall InSight.
Unlike most sophisticated Mars Reconnaissance Orbiters, the MarCO nuclear space, with a cost of $ 18.5 million, has InSight UHF signals to import radio gears and immediately return to X-band frequencies.
"If it works, the two MarCO spacecraft will turn InSight's entry, descent and landing data as it will almost happen. It will be very good for MarCo and InSight to know what will happen next year with the soil," said Anne Marinane at the JPL Director of Mars Cube One.
However, InSight – conventional acronyms are based on internal exploration to transport seismic, geodesic and heat research. The "tone" generated by the computer will direct it to the Earth in seven minutes to express its overall health.
But the exact telemetry will not reach data for the Mars Knowledge Orbit for three hours. A commonly-issued confirmation of solar arrays will be for the Mars Odyssey orbiter of the NASA, after about five and a half hours after land.
"I'm very excited and totally nervous, at the same time, I'm totally up to date, because everything we've done up to date will feel comfortable with Mars," said Hoffman. "But everything must go well. Mart can always throw a curve."
However, InSightk Martia will give a detailed overview on how the solar system met with a cloud of 4,000 million years ago.
InSight has two main tools: Seismic Experiment Barrutia – SEIS – Seismometer, French Space Agency, CNES and Heat Flow and Physical Properties Proof (HP3), German Aerospace Agency, DLR. The two instruments cost European space agencies for $ 180 million.
In order to function properly, both instruments must move to the surface of Mars, with the arm of the arm, and they need a relatively flat and rocky area near the base of the crust. Elysium Planitia landing area was selected.
"Like landing engineers, we like this landing site," said Rob Grover, director of InSight, downfall and landing by Elysium Planitia. "It's flat, it does not have too many rocks, it's a very safe land."
Engineers will use cameras in the soil to analyze specific areas of the spacecraft to obtain the best possible tool.
But it's not quick.
"We've got it back, the slow-moving role is one of the many things we've done," Banerdt said. "We need at least two or three months to get our tools at all. We need to make a part survey in front of our space station, make sure we do not have the tools in a bridge or hole or something similar.
"And then very, we're very careful about how we lift the tools … So it's likely we'll take a month or two to get the seismometer down and get another month or more to get the heat flow probe up and penetrate the surface. Probably looking for the next spring. we're going to start throwing that kind of Marte's science back on us. "
The seismometer is capable of detecting smaller movements than the hydrogen atom, the vibrations of distant marbles and meteorites, and the two small marshes of Mars, to record small lines that emit Phobos and Deimos. internal structure of the planet
The temperature of the sun temperature will be more than 15 degrees in order to measure temperature changes and, by extrapolation, determine how much heat it exits at the bottom.
In the third research, precise signals of radio signals that rotate in Mars will determine the exact orientation of their polar axis, slowly wobbles or precesses, due to the internal "intricate" nucleus. According to these data, they want to determine the size, density and composition of the heart.
The goal is how scientists understand how planet Earth planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – have evolved as we have evolved and how we have evolved into different worlds we see today.
"Venus is hot enough for lead melting," Banerdt said last week. "Mercury has a sunny surface, Mars is quite cold nowadays, but Earth is a great place to take a vacation, we would definitely want to know why one planet goes in one way or another. These responses are the details of the structure that was built at the beginning of the planet's history."
On the ground, this structure "has been mixed, with the tectonic plate and the convection of the mantle," he said. "Thus, the very first trial process has been deleted."
But Marsen, half the planet's Earth size, where the tectonic plate and the bunch of mantle are not working, the evidence of planetary history is still kept inside.
"The processes that make all this happen in the first decades of millions of years," said Banerd. "We want to be able to understand events, and the structure of a planet created in the early years".