Monday , January 18 2021

How to prevent preventable infectious diseases

List of infectious diseases is very large.

Although many of these diseases are also vaccinated, micro-organisms, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa or fungi, include AIDS, leprosy, hepatitis C, malaria or syphilis.

The good news is that they have good treatment and expectations. And there are even things that can be prevented contagion.

Then, we explain these pathologies, their symptoms, treatments and ways of preventing them.


What is?: HIV is a sexually transmitted infection (STD), a retrovirus that attacks the immune system.

It is transmitted through the vaginal, anal and oral sex, through the infected and impregnated syringes through the blood transfusion. An infected mother can also resort to her child during pregnancy, fertility or breastfeeding.

It is important that HIV is not like being AIDS. The HIV is positive (the virus is present in its body), without appearing symptoms over the years, without developing the disease. The acronym has an immunodeficiency syndrome that has been "AIDS" and refers to the disease caused by the virus.

Sísymptoms In the initial phase, called acute infection, the disease can easily be facilitated by flu, fever and flexibility.

Other common signs are swollen on the body, neck and throat glands. The next phase, which is asymptomatic and can last for several years, marks the strong interaction between defense cell and the constant and rapid virus. "

Subsequently, the symptoms appear: the diarrhea, fever, asthenia (reduction or reduction of physical strength), night sweats and loss of 10% weight. Over time, the immune system is becoming increasingly weaker, leading to the generation of diseases such as viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, and even certain types of cancers.

diagnosis and treatmient: AIDS is diagnosed for blood analysis and is a combination of antiretroviral treatment (ARV). Its function will prevent the multiplication of HIV in the body and prevent the weakening of the immune system in order to improve the quality of life and prolong survival. She needs to take patient medication for her entire life.

prevention: Use of condoms (female or male) in all sexual relationships and syringes and needles and gloves for the use of wounds and body fluids.


What is?: An infectious, infectious, and curable disease, which mainly causes skin and peripheral nerves. Bacillus causes it Mycobacterium leprae and its transmission is in contact with coughs and stenosis, and in close contact with the infected people.

Sísymptoms They vary depending on the type of illness, but the most common are in whites, red or brown in body parts, loss or alteration of heat sensitivity (hot and cold), touch and pain, especially at the extremities of the body. hands and feet, on the face, ears, thunder, buttocks and legs.

Also, hair loss, sweating, swelling and hands and feet, fever, edema, joint pain, muscle atrophy and nerve may reduce the strength of the blood vessels. Aggravation of illnesses can also cause serious physical and mental disorders.

diagnosis and treatment: To diagnose leprosy, clinical, dermatoneurological and sensitivity testing is required.

Treatment is an outpatient clinic (without any hospitalization) and is performed using a polycotherapeutic antibiotic. Duration determines the doctor: it can be between six months and two years. Correct treatment, while the interruption is in the early stages of the disease, is to cure leprosy. In addition, in the treatment patients will continue to be infectious and, therefore, they should not be isolated.

prevention: To prevent leprosy contracting, it is essential to prevent contact with infected people. In addition, when the disease is already in place, the best way to avoid it is the early diagnosis that causes physical disabilities.

Hepatitis C

What is?: A virus (HCV) caused by hepatitis C is in the liver.

Its transmission is in contact with the infected blood; It shares syringes, needles, razor, nail pliers and other contaminated objects. When the biosafety rules are not applied, and are usually transmitted without childbirth and sexual protection in surgical, odontology, hemodialysis, transfusion and endoscopy procedures.

Sísymptoms The disease does not always appear in symptoms, and is often not specific, which makes it difficult to diagnose. However, some of them are weakness, skin and yellow eyes, dark urine, light, weakness, dizziness, vomiting and mild fever.

When the virus continues for more than six months, that is to say, 80% of cases, it can evolve in chronic form. When this occurs, one of five patients is at risk of developing cirrhosis, and from 1% to 5%, liver cancer.

diagnosis and treatment: C hepatitis, after diagnosis of blood, has been successfully followed by treatment with a high probability (from 90% to 95%). It usually lasts for three months in the use of antiviral counterparts.

prevention: Avoid facilitating the disease, do not use personal items, such as a toothbrush, razor, pliers, syringe and needle; Make sure objects that use beauty and tattooing are sterilized and use a condom. Therefore, all pregnant women must have birth tests to detect pathology.


What is?: Protozoa is infrared and infectious infections Plasmodium – There are more than 100 types of transmitted female infected with goat Anopheles.

Sísymptoms The main fever is high at 38 ° C or 39 ° C, cold, trembling and sweating. It can occur cyclically in three days, again and again. Previously, the patient is nauseous, tired and feeling appetite. Serious forms of prostration, change of consciousness, decreased breathing or hyperventilation, seizure, high blood pressure or shock and bleeding.

diagnosis and treatmient: Treatment is done with drugs chosen according to factors such as protozoan infectious species, severity, age of the patient and associated diseases (pregnancy and other health problems).

prevention: There is no vaccine against malaria, but is being developed by a group of researchers at the Faculty of Pharmacy Sciences (FFF-USP) of the University of Sao Paulo (Unifesp) and the University of São Paulo. Greater geographical distribution and prevalence of malaria in the Americas, Vivax.

Until then, the most important thing is to prevent the transfer of mosquitoes.

It is recommended that you leave without protection during the afternoon, wear clear-cut clothes that cover the body as long as possible, do not use perfume, apply a permanent mosquito to smoking and install mosquitoes in the windows and door screens on the net.

It is also essential to avoid areas with narrow water, where mosquitoes grow.


whatis it this is: ETS is a human being that causes a bacterium Treponema pallidum. It has several stages (primary, secondary, latin and third), and there are two types: the acquired one, when transmitted through an infected sex with an infected person and when the baby is born, during pregnancy or in a pregnancy.

Sísymptoms As with C hepatitis, this disease has no symptoms in the first stage. What will happen if the wound is caused by the penis, vulva or vagina, cervix or anus. In most cases, if you do not scratch, pain or burns and heals, so often not the doctor.

In the second phase, it is common in the body, suffering from fever, disease, headache and inflammation (inflammation of the lymph nodes). Latent is divided between the last (1 year from the infection) and later (one year before), asymptomatic.

In Tertiaryan, the signs are between 2 and 40 years of age and include injuries of different organs and tissues; They can cause dementia, aorta and arthritis aneurysm among other diseases. In the case of syphilis, risks of abortion, fetus, redness, blindness, headache and death during pregnancy are also mortality.

diagnosis and treatmient: Sifilisa is a quick and easy test to diagnose. A blood analysis or laboratory analysis of skin lesions is performed. After confirming the illness, the treatment is only done with penicillin, the dose of which depends on the stage.

prevention: Preventing the usual recovery problem.

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