XI. A massive accumulation of a monk's teeth from a small convent in the sixteenth century confirms that women are a fundamental part of the transmission of medieval culture. Using sophisticated technologies, researchers from Europe and America have identified the particulates between valuable and rare pig particles in this period: the ultraviolet blue. Lapis lazuli, the tables, fresh (a few months later the coloring of the Sistine Chapel of Christ would give color) and beautifully molded exclusive manuscripts. How did the woman come to her mouth? Scientists advocate sticking their teeth while refining the books that illuminated books.
From this great and most beautiful road, he has had the opportunity to participate. "We have found the blue blood plate blue accident," says researchers from the Institute of the Humanities History of the Max Planck Institute (Jena, Germany) and Christina Warinner. A few years ago, a team led by experts from the ancient human microbioma studied human toothbrushes found in the cemetery of a small Augustinian cemetery in Dalheim (western Germany). They were a woman's teeth, probably not more than 60 years old, that is, dated radiocarbon 997 and 1162. Identified as B78.
"We looked at health and diet, looking for microscopic bacteria, starch and pollen for a qualified dental plaque," says Waringen. But the biomolecules of viruses, bacteria and organic material captured in a graded calculus also found blue particles, so it was life that could only contain a mineral. "Once we found out, we wanted to know what he was and then what he meant," added German scientists. Current work, posted Scientific advancesShe explains how this blue was identified and advises her how to get it.
Researchers suggest that the monk has made the toothpaste soft blue in the mouth
In order to remove the turtle first and then the blood particles must be isolated from the rest of the toothpaste, scientists use an ultrasound scan (sonication), not similar to those used by dentists. They produced 100 particles in single-spreadsheet calculations, an average of 10 microns, about ten percent of human hair. The highest concentration of particles was the tartar of the anterior part of the tooth to determine how to obtain a detail.
The signals of both mammals and periodontitis are not only dangerous, but the traces of mammals do not show signs of illness or traumas, tooth to show their teeth. By suspecting that a pigment may be present, the researchers have presented two particles of different spectrometric technologies, an electron beam (scanning electron microscope or SEM) and the other using the brightness effect of the light (micro-Raman spectroscopy). Compared to the other spectrum obtained with other blue pigments, they determined that the monk was shrouded in her teeth, the main mineral stone in lapis lazuli.
"The blue pigment obtained in lapis lazuli was the most expensive in the Middle Ages," recalls Victoria and the scientist Victoria of the Museum of Alberto, dedicated to artistic decorations, Lucia Burgio. "Until the discovery of America, Lapis lazuli was discovered only today in Afghanistan, which explains why it was so precious and difficult," he said, not experts in the analysis of works of art. Burgio also adds that, like other blue pigments that are degraded over time, such as azurita, the ultramarin blue flare still maintains vitality.
Professor of Harvard University and Michael McCormick's one of the greatest experts in medieval European history, explains the importance and exclusive nature of lapis lazuli, lazurita and ultramarin blue: "It was Afghanistan's only grief and travel from the Caribbean to Constantinople or Alexandria and then to Venice or Genoa The merchants bought it, they supplied it with a Mediterranean boat and, finally, it passed through Germany's merchants through Germany. "
How was a certain pigment, as a gold value, the scale of a monk in a small German convent? Researchers know they are not sure. But there are four possible explanations and arguments to exclude four first explanations. The only option is that monks would use lapis lazuli as a medicine. The Persians and the ancient Greeks, lapidary medicine based on precious gems, was a way of healing ailments. But the first medical treatments in the Middle Ages did not appear until the end of the eleventh century. So it seems that East Eastern practice would not reach the Germanic territories before the magician.
Another option reminds us of the mystery of the work Pink Name, Umberto echo. The blue mantle came from devotional composition, to make the apple text kiss. In the Middle Ages, he was so fashionable that he added some liturgical texts that were divided into tablets, kissing them and not destroying them. Although in the Merovingian period (6th and 8th centuries), it would not be common for three centuries after the death of the woman in the Dalheim convent.
Although some other claylocks, such as "El beato de Gerona", have reportedly not reported births.
The authors of the study only offer two alternative scenarios: the pencils made pencil-made pigments or the manuscripts that he wrote or illuminated. Asian pencil lazuli trading was in the hands of Venetian merchants, controlling iron hand. The complex processes to obtain a blue ultramarine that breaks down, cleans, slips, and processes a complex process are also Italians. But the monks lived and died when they were far away and far away. Although they do not exclude this option, the researchers have stressed that the pigment has already been commercialized. Thus, in the work of the illustrative books, the lady will brush again and again in her mouth to set it before a new blow. The teeth were putting blue teeth on the blue.
"Using lapis lazuli with medicine or devotional ossicles would not create warning patterns," explains Anita Radini, a British-born archaeologist and researcher at the University of York (United Kingdom). Instead, he selects the writing or illumination thesis, "by the way they form tartar: the particles appear as loose powders and their measurements coincide with the prepared pigment, not shells [del proceso de preparación]"he adds.
If so, it would be one of the first illuminations of medieval books. It's not unique, there are great manuscripts, for example Liber Scivias, XII. In the late Hildegard Abbaye de Bingen, or even older, Joy of management, a miniature co-painted a code. But this research, far from exceptionally, was the participation of women, especially religious women, the transmission of culture, but rather an isolated phenomenon.
Experts and co-authors of Medieval History in Alison Beach argue that writing and illustration of medieval manuscripts is monks, but also monks. "Most of the gangs worked in the shade, perhaps for spiritual pressure to be particularly humble, and although many would be dexterous, like our B78, they would remain anonymous, women like B78 were scattered throughout the Middle Ages, working in many cases at that time who were bishops or priests over their communities or regions, without losing their personality as an artist. "
McCormick's colleague agrees with Beach: "The scholars allegedly copied and clarified manuscripts as a male problem, but recent research has shown that women have a much greater role than women." He says: "This new research is the first, the time in order to identify one of the mentioned artists in the mention of letters and records, and open up a new way of identifying female (and male) artists of the time. "