What kind of sparkling will be astronomy + bright creature?
Tang Ting our reporter
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) always directed the impression to the deepest universes. Recently, a breakthrough in biological research has been exploded: DNA is financing a study that synthesises a similar molecular system. This molecular system saves and transmits information. Although he is not a new form of life, he tells the scientists who look for extraterrestrial life. The lifestyle of other planets exists in a different way, and there is a need to be informed about what they are looking for. According to the results of the study, they were published on February 21 of Science.
Astronomy and biology mixes are not so weird. In fact, in life exploration NASA's science missionary mission is increasingly important. Finding the planet's planets and extraterrestrial life is also essential in astrobiology. So what is astrobiology? What are the methods of detecting the extraterrestrial life? What are the programs that are currently developing or detecting important detection? The magazine interviewed the most important experts.
criticized research area
"Where does he live on earth?" Is the life phenomenon of other planets? Carbon-based life, which is the boundary of its existence? Astrobiology tries to answer these questions. "Chinese National Astronomy Academy of Sciences ping Jinsong said in an interview on Science and Technology newspaper.
As an appropriate term, "Astrobiology" first appeared in the 1940s. In 1941, L. J. Lafleur of Brooklyn College of Canada cited astrobiology in the Pacific Astronomical Society report.
The United States is the birthplace of astrology. In the 1960s, the US space exploration project explored extraterrestrial life. In 1964, NASA launched the "Sailor 4" Mars probe.
The first human detective flying over Marsen, the picture of the Mars surface called "Sailor 4" is moving: the surface of the well is deserted, without vegetation and no sign of civilization. In 1976, "Pirates" No. 1 and No. 2 detectors successfully landed on Marsen. Marsen's experiments found that he was not alive on Marsen or on the surface.
The following bad news, people shake. The paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson once criticized astrobiology without "scientific research". After being silent, in the 1990's, scientists suggested the NASA launch a new astrobiological research project. In the meantime, a series of new discoveries of astronomy has led to the formation of astrological formal discipline.
For example, in the case of Ping Jinsong, in 1996, scientists discovered that Europe's water in Europe is water-liquid and one of the most important conditions for water life is the magnetite layer of the meteorite layer ALH84001. New discoveries help rebuild confidence.
In addition to exploring research, astrobiology has gradually expanded into a broader scientific field, forming a disciplinary field, including terrestrial microbiology, origin life, interstellar chemistry and geophysics.
Li Yiliang, associate professor of the Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Hong Kong, explores the origin, evolution, distribution and future astrobiology of the universe, focusing on the question of the origin and evolution of human life, taking into account the future of human civilization and the environment. Concerns about change and space and the exploration of the universe.
It's "believing to see" for different perspectives.
If you look at the history of astrobiology development, it is not difficult to experience many casualties along the way. In this area, scientists are fascinated by the National Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Engineering, and the Medical School in October 2018, a report on "Cosmic Life Discovery Strategies". The report proposes to extend the search for life in the universe, to support a broader field of environmental awareness and environmental research and to include astronomy in the future exploration missions.
In this regard, Ping Jinsong has stated that the astrobiology research program is the first time in the world at the national level, as the United States added an unprecedented astrobiology altitude. The plan makes it the title of "finding life in the universe", which means confirming its options.
In fact, in recent years astronomy has been making exciting discoveries. In June 2018, NASA published two major Mars finds: "Curious" rover discovered the organic molecules of the sedimentary rocks in the Marsen area and said Mars could have an ancient life. Additionally, the concentration of methane is in a moody atmosphere. Seasonal changes, or related to the current life of Mars.
How to find the life of the universe? Since sight is incredible, the direct detector of spatial emissions is one of the methods of detecting and detecting the cellular observation body. In the next 10-15 years, the United States wants to launch 4-5 space probes for astrobiologic research.
Among these, the "César" exploration program explores the life of the universe, like the main objective, the 67B comet core detection plan, and collects a sample of 80 grams to return to Earth. The "蜻蜓" detection program is prepared, like dozens of small airplanes, such as large-scale sampling and analysis, for more than 100 kilometers of celestial surface, to find individual carbohydrate characterization, living and water signals.
In addition, the United States will conduct Russia's Venus exploration. The American detectors flying through the air and the Russian landing markers will work together to find signs that can live in the atmosphere of the Venus.
As we can see, the cost of launching a spatial detection live detector is high. In addition to the direct detection, biological research may also be done through indirect detection. Ping Jinsong used the use of astronomical telescopes to observe ceramic bodies on the ground. Analyzing the observed spectra, measuring the abundance and composition of cometary molecular organs and measuring the distribution of volatile phenols and organic molecules can be measured on the surface of the rigid planet. At the same time, an important role in the chemistry of heaven will also try to make organic molecules into organic macromolecules to solve some of the mysteries of life's origin.
Analyze the limits of life
For a long time, the scientists believe that the temperature and pressure that the earth can withstand is the upper limit, but it is not certain where it is. As the study continues to deepen, perceptions of people's lives are constantly refreshing.
More recently, the media reported that scientists in the Deep Carbon Observatory discovered that they had found a broad microbial network beneath the earth's surface, archaea, bacteria and prokaryotes. These beings can withstand unbelievable temperatures and survive in a "zombie state" in a place where sunlight and almost food is present.
The subterranean biosphere is calculated with a population of 2 and 2.3 million cubic kilometers, which is to double the total volume of the ocean. Although surprisingly, in extreme environments, bacteria "zombies" have evolved in a relatively unequal manner and have survived for millions of years.
Are there other microbes living on other planets? Ping Jinsong believes that microbial studies that have undergone underground biosphere in the past have been carried out. With deep understanding of the deep life of the Earth, people will inspire the new livability of planet Earth and respond to the origin of life on earth. The process, and also the surface of other forms or other underground forms.
In fact, some scientists are considering the possibility of other microorganisms in the planet. In December of 2018, an annual meeting of the American Geophysical Society may contain a large number of underground microbial microorganisms, as terrestrial underground environments are better suited to microbial territories than deep Earth biospheres. The scientists taking part in the study stressed that terrestrial underground crusts are more porous than terrestrial rockets to generate food and gas exchanges that the microbes require. At the same time, even though Mars's cooling core is still melting, a better temperature can be given to microorganisms that live in deep rocks.
From the point of view of Ping Jinsong, Mars underground layers is a significant place to search for microorganisms. Previous studies have found that gratin, underground waters and Mars Polar ice hats are Mars. Based on the understanding of life on the earth, astrobiology of liquid water and ur-rock interactions, the Earth's planets, are a condition for the existence of microorganisms. "Like the great planet Earth, the presence of water and microbial can be a common phenomenon in the evolution of the sky."