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/ Source: Associated Press
by Marilynn Marchione, Associated Press
HONG KONG – A Chinese researcher helped the world's first genetically modified babies, the twin births of these months, whose DNA changed the powerful new tool that could revive their new life.
If true, science and ethics would be a profound leap.
A United States scientist participated in China, but this gene edition is forbidden in the United States, because DNA changes can be passed on to future generations and can damage other genes.
Scientists believe that there is no excessive attempts and they report a Chinese report as a human experimentation.
The researcher at He Jiankui, Shenzhen, said the broadcasts had been seven pairs of fertility treatments, due to pregnancy. He said that his goal was not to cure or prevent hereditary illness, but rather to have little capacity for them to be able to cope with potential future HIV infections against HIV, AIDS.
He told them that their parents identified or interviewed, and did not know where they lived or where they did.
He has no assertions of his own affirmation, nor has he been published in a journal, as will be analyzed by other experts. On Monday, he revealed in Hong Kong, one of the organizers of the international conference on genes edition on Tuesday, and earlier with the exclusive Associated Press interviews.
"I feel a strong responsibility, it's not a first step, but an example," said the AP. "Society will decide on the next" that this science is forbidden or prohibited.
Some scientists were amazed to hear the claim and strongly condemned it.
"It is impossible … the human experiment is not morally or ethically defensible," said Dr. Kiran Musunuru, editor and geneticist of Genetika magazine.
"This is too early," said Dr. Eric Topol, a director at Scripps Research Translational Institute in California. "We're working with the instructions of a man's running, it's a big difference."
However, an important geneticist from George Churche, Harvard University, advocated an attempt to combat HIV's genes, called "an important and growing threat to public health".
"I think that is justifiable," he said.
In recent years, scientists have easily found DNA genes for DNA editing genes. The tool called CRISPR-cas9 allows the functioning of DNA to disable any of the required genes or problems.
Recently, they have tried to treat deadly diseases among adults and the changes are limited to that person. Editing sperm, egg or embryo is different – changes may be inherited. In the United States, it is not allowed except for laboratory research. China rejects human cloning, but it is not exactly the gene edition.
When He Jiankui went to "JK", he studied at Rice and Stanford, where he opened a laboratory in the South China Science and Technology University in Shenzhen, where he has two genetic companies.
He returned to China with this project he worked with in the United States scientist, a physicist and bioengineering professor Michael Deem, his adviser at Rice Houston. In addition, Deem called a "small participation" – and is in scientific advice boards – it has two companies.
The Chinese researcher for a number of years has made the edition of mouse, monkey and human embryos, and has sought patents in methods.
He chose to edit the embryo of HIV, because they are a big problem in China. Disables a gene called CCR5, a virus that causes HIV, AIDS, which forms a protein portal that allows access to a cell.
All men in the project had HIV and not all women, but the gene edition did not prevent the risk of transmission, he said. Parents tightened their standard infections with their infections, and there are easy ways to keep children infected with the genes.
Instead, the appeal is that the couples affected by the HIV may have a chance to be a child.
He recruited couples through a group of promotional AIDS in Beijing called Baihualin. His leadership, known as "Bai Hua", has said that it is not uncommon for people with HIV to be at risk of losing their job or receiving healthcare when their infections appear.
Here's how he described the work:
Genesis edition occurred during IVF, or between laboratory fertilizers. First of all, the sperm was "washed" from the semen, a fluid capable of burying HIV. The sole sperm was placed in one egg to create the embryo. Then the genre editing tool was added.
When the embryos were 3 to 5 days, a few cells were removed and the edition was checked. The couple can choose whether to use edited or unedited embryo for pregnancy attempts. In total, there were 22 out of 16 embitions, and 11 embryos used six attempts at the implant before getting twin pregnancies, he said.
The attempts suggest that a twin had copies of the virus gene targeted and the other twins had changed, because other genes did not have any evidence, he said. People with a copy of the gene still remain, although very limited research suggests that their health is slow when they do it every once in a while.
Several scientists have reviewed AP-equipped materials and, to date, there is not enough cutting work or damages.
In any case, the edition is incomplete and seems to have at least one twin patch of cell modifications.
"It's hardly ever edited", only a few cells changed because the HIV infection may still occur, the Church said.
The Church and Musunur questioned the decision to use one of the embryos in pregnancy trial, because Chinese researchers said they did not know beforehand that they wanted to change.
"In the child, there was hardly anything to do with the protection against HIV, and you are still explaining all the unknown risks of childhood safety," said Musunuruk.
The use of this embryo suggests that the researchers "avoiding the avoidance of stresses," said the Church.
Although the edition works well, people without common CCR5 genes are at greater risk for other viruses, such as the West Nile and the flu. There are many ways to prevent HIV infection and if it is very treatable, other health risks are a concern, said Musunuruk.
He also asked questions about the way. He made an official note about his work, when he said at the beginning – on 8th, a Chinese record of clinical trials.
Is it not clear that the participants understand the risk and benefits of whether they understand the purpose and the potential. For example, a project called "AIDS vaccination development program" was requested.
The scientist, Deem, said that when it came to China, potential participants were given permission to understand the dangers they thought "completely".
Deem said he was working at the vaccine research at Rice and playing a similar gene for a vaccine.
"That could be a layman's description," he said.
Two men are experienced physicists and do not experiment with clinical trials.
Chinese scientist, He, said personally he clearly stated the goals, and that the embryo participants did not try to edit the genes before they ever tried and dangers. He also said that he could provide insurance coverage for any child and medical follow-up on the project, when children are 18 years of age and older when they are older.
There are some other pregnancy attempts, that is, between the security and weight analyzed experts, but the participants have not previously stated that they have not tried to get a provisional "inventor". He confessed. It was an offer of multiple fertility treatment.
He celebrated the Shenzhen Harmonic Women and Children's Hospital project, which is not one of the trunks provided by the four female research centers or pregnancy attempts.
Other staff from other hospitals remained obscure about the nature of the research, and He and Deem said they had stopped taking part in the HIV infections involved.
"We think this is ethical," said Lin Zhitong, Harmonicare administrator, head of the ethics panel.
They were aware of the medication that HIV can handle, "he said. Qin Jinzhou's lab's engiologist confirmed with AP that he washes the sperm and injected the gene editing tool into pregnancy attempts.
The study participants are not ethicists, he said, but "many authorities are right and wrong because they are in their line of life."
"I think they will have help from families and children," he said. If it causes unwanted side effects or harm, "I feel that I feel pain and it will be my responsibility."