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BBC – The Future – Kifafa: The mystery behind the "disease behind the East African"



Wapogoro for the people, there are less fates than fates tikafa.

The Tanga Mahenge mountain ranges are the deepest in Tanzania: rugged land, mixed forests and rare underground treasures, bright fossils and reddish-red colors. They have survived the isolation, for hundreds of years, live quietly and, to a large extent, escape the world over.

Or did this happen to the Norwegian doctor until 1959. Louise Jilek-Aale, 28, was set to set up a medical school and a field clinic. But as soon as he did not see him sick, he noticed something special.

Almost every day, two youngsters would return to the office. In one case, the little girl was completely unknown; Many others were killed. The wraps were often superimposed on pale pale rocks, after the creation of the previous cork oaks.

When Jilek-Aall tried to find out what was happening, he met fear and evasion. Even though the relatives of the affected children explained their tenderness

In fact, the younger members of the tribe seemed particularly suspicious, and I would say that some of them were suspicious, that it could be a great deal of accidents, which was regularly upset. When Jilek-Aall tried to find out what was happening, he met fear and evasion. Even though the relatives of the affected children explained their tenderness.

In the end, Jilek-Aall realized that patients were called convulsions tikafa – Swahili "little death" – and falls. Sometimes they would land on open fires when they prepared food. Sometimes they would end up on the river.

But the mystery did not end there. The same children also had rapid growth, intellectual difficulties and distinctive behaviors, such as face and faces. Most surprising, "he was nodding head"; Several times a day, they would close their eyes and fall back on boxes again. The disease lasted for many years and death ended early.

In the end, all the members of Wapo were afraid tikafa almost at a thunderstorm, the disease was not anywhere else in Tanzania. This was also the true tribes.

Nodding Syndrome has been found in Africa's eastern Africa pockets, from southern Sudan to northern Uganda, thousands of people survived. In each new location, it does not seem to appear anywhere. What could happen to deadly pests? And how can we stop?

Nowadays, no one knows why the syndrome emerges. In the past, the disease was a strange and enigmatic epilepsy. Now, recent research has shown that it could be a neurodegenerative disease, epilepsy and a combination of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's symptoms. In the end, the victims are usually complicated operations, such as brain damage and accidents or mental health and forgetfulness.

A trace from the 2018 study shows that patients have adolescent brains in the elderly with the last two diseases. "A new line of research is being developed, we now know that certain brain damage occur," says Michael Pollan, a Toronto-based pathologist, a researcher. "You can think of it like this: to find out about the types of brain damage, you may be able to go back."

At least, the urgent feeling of research is confronted with other diseases. Syndrome nodding not only affects some of the weakest people on the planet, but the key can not be eluded because scientists can have the longest understanding of long disorders.

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If you compare wrinkles with Alzheimer's syndrome, you can easily see why. Millions of people have been found, who have many different lifestyles, on all continents on the planet, only in other isolated and isolated populations. In these communities, it is easier for a person, for example, to have a child who suffers from the syndrome, who do not have one. "My intuition says that is important," says Pollan.

So what do we know so far?

Theories are imaginative there. Mahenge, tied to locals tikafa A dreamy face, when they are washing themselves, throwing water on their shoulders, feeling tasting. Then open your eyes and become bloody water.

It is obvious that one thing is not inherited. "Although this happens in families, this disease comes and goes," says Peter Spencer, a neurologist at the Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences. "In 1997, it appears in North Uganda, at the beginning of the 2000s, and then disappears. You can not explain genetic inheritance disorder, because it does not fit that pattern."

The main source of inspiration for discovering Syndrome is another baffling illness, largely based on the island of Guam. This solitary hill of meadows and grasslands is marooned in a remote corner of the Pacific Ocean, a small mote, thousands of miles away from the continent.

Guam is technically a US soil, even though Chamorro has lived, since at least 1904, with an enigmatic disease. Scientists call Western Pacific Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinson-dementia complex (ALS-PDC). The locals just know it lytic-bodig. The disease was found to have died due to death due to the loss of various deaths due to the loss of muscle and the peak reached the peak of the 50s when it became the main killer of the island.

The disease can be taken in two ways. there is not lytic, which resembles neurodegenerative disease ALS (motor neuron disease), because the innovative physicist Stephen Hawking lived decades ago. Then there it is bodig Part, similar to the stunning syndrome; It's one of the hallmarks of Parkinson's and dementia. Technically, lytic and bodig Two diseases are separate, but they are linked together because they are stuck together and because they are the same cause.

"It's important that genetic disease was familiar and genetic in the 1950s," says Spencer. "Since 2000, it has clearly disappeared, but genetics were still confused with genetic risk factors. Well, today, Guam has disappeared and it is clearly an environmental illness."

It leads fake

I find it amazing that the search for nodes in the footstep has begun early. But in recent years, scientists continue to fake the lead. In South Sudan, in 2002, the syndrome began to palliate and the patient had several types of parasitic worm infections. One type, Onchocerca volvulusIt was a great effort to prove a link.

Onchocerciasis is a particularly terrible illness, and black hawk begins to sink into the mouth of the vagina's mouth, leaving a generous dose of parasitic larvae. For several months, they create feathers created by feathers on the skin and eventually join their worm families. They will make 1,500 baby or microfilas every day, migrating throughout the body, invading almost all organs and tissues.

Certainly, worms are not a lot of problems. When the bodies die, the bodies start a powerful and harmful immune response against limestone. This was a suggestive pustule of syndrome.

There are also some serious theories, such as worms that include people infecting people in some parts of Central and South America, because they do not squeeze the syndrome. Given this, worms seem to blame for a bit of space.

But there are other suggestions.

"The head nodding is common," says Spencer. "It's been described in another case – a post-sarkoin mess, recently, Israeli-German appearances, and probably in Europe again."

A rare disease, known as aubakute sclerosing (SSPE), known as panentuskula, can be developed when the widow is caught in the morning. As in the case of sodod, the typical symptoms are intellectual and mental difficulties. And like nodding syndrome, it tends to emerge in childhood. Can the syndrome be able to be free with the elm tree?

North Uganda, the idea is very well suited.

Until the end of the 1980s, the region was the epicenter of the Civil War, which was controlled by the trio of the factors, the kidnappers of the child, the warriors and self-proclaimed prophet Joseph Kony led their army. More than a thousand people fled to the house, browsing internal diseases such as cholera, hawks and rubella.

The civil war is now long and Kony has won over $ 5 million (£ 3.8 million). But for the general public, there could be consequences. In the days that are still happening, reports on Northwest Uganda's North American Syndrome came to the middle of the 2000s, that is, after five years, in the bloodiest bloody war, people were flooded in stricken camps.

As time progresses, mosquitoes have a viral concern for children and children, and SSPE has been developing for several years; Uganda children were around seven years old.

Now scientists need to know the meaning of ideas in Tanzania and South Sudan. "If we want to find an answer to this disease, it must have three major geographical isolation," says Spencer. "And we can say that the common feature of all insulating bleeding syndromes is the failure of ordinary vaccinations."

Spencer means that hawthorns are not the only cause. Rubella is also known to create a SSPE-like situation and two viruses cause similar symptoms and prevent it from being vaccinated. It is not clear what is behind the Ugandan epidemic. It could not be possible; There is no option on the table, including some types of viruses.

Infections can be an amazing case of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis

In any case, any wheeled viral would slip with the latest findings. There are many cases of neurodegenerative diseases that can lead to infections, the herpes simplex virus, the increase in the development of Alzheimer's disease (including other diseases, including bacterial illness). Epstein-Barr virus is found in most patients with sclerosis.

Viruses get into the brain, cause general inflammation and promote the production of certain kidneys, which constantly reduce the normal functioning of the brain.

Such a protein is beta-amyloid. It has microbial properties and can fight against infections. But when he saw the brains of the Uganda children, Pollanen's syndrome was daring. In fact, the group discovered a large amount of neurodegenerative disease, such as a large mix of important proteins called tau tai, the signs of infections were not in any way.

"We do not see that inflammation seems to be a virus, we do not see parasites, we do not see a bacterial infection," says Pollan. "We did not see the markers of these kinds of damage to cells or tissues, but this does not completely exclude the virus. We do not know."

Spencer is the same. "Now, Michael Pollanen will say well that there is no evidence of post-pituitary, a type of pathology to detect late-marrow illnesses." "But I think it is reasonable to see that there is no evidence of brain infections in patients with Alzheimer's disease … the debate is very complicated."

Back to the latest discoveries in Guam lytic-bodig An intriguing alternative can be found: diet.

Chamorro eats desserts on dykes: giant trees and trees that lived in the dinosaur reign. BMAA is rich in chemicals, detecting brain damage among patients with disorders. Does diet-toxins also play an important role in palliative syndrome?

The disease occurs in the smallest communities in Africa, which is why the affected children often suffer from a poor diet. In the Ugandan civil war, famine families were encouraged to accommodate camps rented out of food, such as gardening corn and seeds, pesticides, emergency relief programs and planting. Those who eat them may also find out about a child who is using the syndrome.

Although good times, such as fat such as cassava and sorghum, children can put an end to it. Both contain chemicals that deplete cyanide, Victorian killers' composite lovers. Plants are protected by insects, and they have already been implicated in severe neurodegenerative diseases, which are the worst and most shocking parts of Central and eastern Africa from generation to generation.

Although the root cane is rich in carbohydrates, calcium and vitamins, it is not well processed, watered and soaked for several days, to reduce cyanide content, it will slowly poison anyone who eats enough. Toxins destroy brain neurons that affect the muscles and the end result is not irreversible paralysis. Many victims will end up as quadriplegic.

If sodomy is a dietary cause, then it shows that it can have a great global impact, as the illness has already shown to be rare genius; BMAA could drive the discovery lytic-bodig, scientists have shown that they have been able to participate in the development of other neurodegenerative diseases. It turns out that this is likely, and today, in clinical trials, it is a known chemistry to deal with these damages. It is possible to provide a new way of treating patients with ALS and premature dementia.

"I can say that this research continues to be completely committed and I believe that completing a multidisciplinary group of significant contributions," says Pollan. "This work can only be done by the group, and, of course, nobody knows the full knowledge needed to solve the problem, so we'll take it."

Right now, the nodding syndrome drags the mystery. Who knows, perhaps, one day this African African disease can provide a strong mark to unblock treatments worldwide for many diseases worldwide. Poland, however, fully emphasizes the risks of visualizing human tragedy clinically. It's an experiment "Especially in my discipline, we are dealing with the immediate effects of the armed internal conflict. We recall that these acts are longer," he says. "And those who are prone to syndrome are part of a regional humanitarian crisis, because there is more than one scientific reason to ensure the wellbeing of these children."

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