HNGO KONG – One of the most important international conferences on Tuesday in the human genome is supported by the Hong Kong Academy of Sciences, the British Royal Society and the United Nations Academy of the United Nations.
The Academy of Sciences of China (CAS), in 2015, sponsored this first meeting in Washington, along with British and American counterparts, at that time.
A year ago, after a few months of the Second World Summit on Human Genome Editor, China quietly commented, the Baltimore Institute of Technology, California, chairman of the meeting committee, said STAT. The development was not announced in advance and the organizers did not announce it, there were uncertainties to discuss the reasons.
"The CAS did not want to be a meeting of 500 people [mainland] China and we need the number of participants to expect to adapt, "Baltimore said." That way they came out. "At that moment, the Hong Kong Academy of Sciences provided a place and support.
The other scientists taking part in the planning months thought that Peking believed it was not easy to hear. "We were originally sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and was the peak in Beijing," said scientists in the planning world. "But it was not a clear reaction [Chinese] We wanted the government in the region and transparency.
The Chinese Academy did not respond to the commentary.
Its absence and the officials of the ministry of science in China will not officially replace an essential player for the genome editing. Science in China – and how rapid investigating researchers are leading edited human embryos by directing inherited diseases is expected to have a star attraction.
On the eve of the Summit, the news about the Chinese scientist's surprise claim has been raised for the first time, babies – twins – genes that were born as embryos in the last year. The DNA changes to their children were intended to face HIV infection. Other scientists have said that work was premature and not safe, and it was reported as a human experimentation.
In addition to the absence of the Chinese Academy, the summit is different in 2015. According to Genea's edition, the "genome editing" is the peak. The change reflects the strength of technologies like CRISPR. Laboratory animals and human cells, not only in single genes but also in multiple genes, treat the whole genome. a bad manuscript, waiting for the care of a red-colored editor. Summit sessions will feature advances in CRISPR science, describing rules and attitudes around the world, and ethical issues that will be raised.
At the height of 2015, when the science ministry officers raised their eyebrows, despite strict rules for using human embryonic genome in China, it was not guaranteed that laboratories and clinics did not perform experiments.
Rumors have been a long time since researchers in China have made great progress in editing the genome to change the DNA of human embryos so that Western scientists can not refuse or ban smoking. Laws in some countries, including the United States, prohibit the use of public funds to change the embryonic DNA of the embryo, even if these are not feasible, to avoid the size of a few cells and a pregnancy. "Roman edition" would be inherited as follows.
Scientists are moving forward in China. In 2015, the biologists of the University of Guangzhou Sun Yat-sen did the first experiment in human embryonic DNA, and their work was described in a dark online magazine. In this way, more well-known people rejected them for reasons of ethics. He immediately pushed forgiveness. Some scientists and others argued against changing the human genome over the next generation.
Since then, the US National Academies and the Nuffield Council of Great Britain, such as Bioethics, have approved research in German research. This has the prevention of inherited diseases, such as Huntington, a cellular refrigerator, Tay-Sachs, and even before a child is born. However, even though non-interim proposals for human use should take longer research, the germination edition can be safely performed before the IVF embryo invented during pregnancy.
According to CRISPR scientists, it is clear that what they work for in China is safety in the laboratory and it is necessary to use CRISPR IVF clinics. This summer, researchers from ShanghaiTech University Xingxu Huang use the basic edition of CRISPR to carry out a basic edition to correct the mutation that affects the Marfan syndrome in IVF embryos. Pregnancies were not tried Huang, as the Chinese government has acknowledged, has summoned it to the summit.
The key organizers of the top organizers wanted to meet in China, "we believe that this is the field of expertise in the United States and the UK we can do," said the scientist. It comes out of the Chinese Academy.
"We are hearing a lot of scientists working in the Asian Embryo," said the University of California, Berkeley, biochemist, Jennifer Doudna, the pioneer CRISPR and the organizing committee. "I am very interested in what they are doing and what they are thinking, what level of security do they think of before they go into the clinic? Does the public want to understand something and want it to the general audience? Does people see the positive or the negative?"
Few people understand that the embryo edition is also an option, said Doudna. "My perception is not a fairly large proportion of people who do not really know it," he said. "People outside of the community of science are worried about it".
No more people understand what a step embryonic edition is. As Baltimore said, medical intervention has never been "the consequences will go by generations."
Ready or not, it is probably unstoppable. "We strongly agreed that genome editing would be safe enough to eradicate an IVF stroke," said Dr. George Daley, Dean of Harvard Medical School. "I still believe that early use of technology that is receiving support" is to change the genes that affect hereditary diseases. "But will this be actively discussed at the summit – what additional scientific advances do you need to try before? My intention is to find out that this science has been sufficient for the clinical development phase in the last three years."
Even though Doudna's concerns about her germ-issue set up at the beginning of 2015 at a private meeting, she now believes that "the genomes are being edited toward the beginning of human embryos."
U.S. The regulations CRISPR use in any patient is a cell therapy. All cell therapies, depending on what they pay, must be approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The Congress has made it illegal for the FDA to review the human embryos' use of CRISPR.
In China, in spite of the use of CRISPR, other scientists will not take it into account, "even if they are behavioral incentives in the way people are internationally recognized," said Baltimore. The embryo of the IVCR of the CRISPR and the lymph in nine months lets it violate the international consensus of the sciences, which is urgently needed due to uncertainty about safety. "If something is not consistent [research] Instructions would find a world-wide opprobrium, "he said." Chinese people are very sensitive. They do not want nonsense as a nation. "
Doudna will be in charge of the session with public participation efforts, where experts from three countries will discuss how to educate people about the public. In another session, Tasmania and Singapore will present representatives of the seven countries in China and the United States on their government policies on the human genome editing, both the germination edition (embryo) and the least controversy among children or adults in the treatment of the existing disorder. This "somatic editing" would not be inherited by future generations.
Many scientific presentations will be required not only for a CRISPR medical device and for research. At the peak of 2015, "a lot has changed" about what is known about CRISPR's security, accuracy and efficiency, said Daley. "For somatic expressions, at least 12 CRISPR-Cas9 clinical trials are underway".
Among other things, blood disease, such as beta-thalassemia, Vertex Pharmaceuticals and CRISPR Therapeutics, which eliminates blood from the disease, uses CRISPR to correct the mutation that causes the disease and returns the edited cells. The rest have cancer, using CRISPR to attack immune cells. Early sessions will report the progress of CRISPR as a complement to blood disorders, as well as muscle dystrophy.
Dr. Alta Charo, professor and bioethics at Wisconsin University, member of the committee that organizes the summit of Madison, believes it must be underlined. "In CRISPR we may continue to be happy public with public applications," said: "Germline editing, which will be the most difficult to evaluate for its risks and benefits and improvements" – CRISPR is not a treatment ill, but someone looks, strength or to improve other features. People, he added, put these applications together – Germline editing improvement, a.k. "Designer babies" – "and we are racing".