Overdose deaths reached a new high in 2017, topping 70,000, while the suicide rate increased by 3.7%, the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics reports.
Dr. Robert Redfield, CDC director, called the trend tragic and troubling. "Life expectancy gives us a snapshot of the Nation's overall health and these sobering statistics are a wakeup call that we are losing too many Americans, too early and too often, to conditions that are preventable," he wrote in a statement.
The estimate of how long a person born in 2017 can expect to live in the United States is 78.6 years, a decrease of 0.1 year from 2016, the state's government say.
As usual, women will continue to outlive men. In both 2016 and 2017, female life expectancy was 81.1 years, while male life expectancy dropped from 76.2 years in 2016 to 76.1 in 2017.
Most races and ethnic groups, including black males, Hispanic males and Hispanic females, saw no significant changes in their death rate year over year.
However, black females experienced a 0.8% decreasing death rate in 2017 over the previous year, meaning they lived a bit longer, while the rate increased by 0.6% for white male and 0.9% for white females.
Finally, the 10 leading causes of death in 2017, accounting for almost three quarters of all deaths throughout the nation, were heart disease, cancer, unintentional injuries, chronic lower respiratory diseases, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, influenza and pneumonia, kidney disease and suicide. This grim "top 10 list" remained unchanged from the previous year.
Drug overdose deaths
Rates have been consistently and significantly higher for males than females throughout the years, increasing from about 8 men dying of an overdose per 100,000 in 1999 to about 29 men per 100,000 in 2017. Among women, the rate increased from about 4 overdose deaths per 100,000 in 1999 to about 14 per 100,000 in 2017.
Age was an influencing factor in these deaths, the researchers found. Adults between 25 and 54 experienced the highest rates of drug overdose deaths in 2017. The 25-to-34 group had almost 38 overdose deaths per 100,000, the 35-to-44 group had 39 per 100,000, and the 45-to-54 group had about 38 per 100,000.
Younger and older people died by overdose less frequently, the report indicates. People between the ages of 15 and 24 experienced about 13 overdose deaths per 100,000, those between 55 and 64 experienced 28 per 100,000, and the 65 and older age group had about 7 deaths per 100,000.
Overall, the highest increase in drug overdose death rates was among adults between 55 and 64 for the period 1999 to 2017: About 4 deaths per 100,000 occurred in this group in 1999, compared to 28 per 100,000 in 2017.
Place also mattered when it came to drug overdose deaths, with some states registering higher numbers than others, the report shows. The 2017 rate in West Virginia was almost 58 overdose deaths per 100,000 people, in Ohio about 46 per 100,000, in Pennsylvania about 44 per 100,000, and in the District of Columbia, 44 per 100,000. Meanwhile, Texas (about 10 drug overdose deaths per 100,000), North Dakota (about 9 per 100,000), South Dakota and Nebraska (both about 8 per 100,000) had the lowest rates in 2017.
The heroin overdose death rate remained constant at about 5 deaths per 100,000 people for both 2016 and 2017; That said, it is seven times higher than in 1999. By contrast, overdose deaths involving fentanyl, fentanyl analogs and other synthetic opioids (other than methadone) increased by 45% between 2016 and 2017, rising from about 6 deaths per 100,000 to 9 per 100,000.
Deaths by suicide
Among the ills, the rate increased 26% between 1999 and 2017, from about 18 suicides per 100,000 to almost 22 per 100,000.
Among females, the rate increased 53% from 4 suicides by 100,000 in 1999 to almost 6 by 100,000 in 2017. Women between the ages of 45 and 64 experienced the highest rates in both 1999 (6 suicides for 100,000) and 2017 (almost 10 suicidal for 100,000).
Rates in rural US counties are almost twice as high as in urban counties, the state's government say.
In 1999, the suicide rate for the most rural counties was about 13 per 100,000, compared to almost 10 per 100,000 in the most urban counties.
In 2017, the suicide rate for the most rural counties (20 per 100,000) outpaced that in the most urban counties (about 11 per 100,000). However, this 2017 urban suicide rate is 16% higher than in 1999 (about 10 per 100,000), while the 2017 suicide rate for the most rural counties is 53% higher than in 1999 (about 13 per 100,000), the report indicates.
"We must work together to reverse this trend and help ensure that all Americans live longer and healthier," Redfield said in his statement, of the decline in life expectancy. He added that the CDC "is committed to putting science into action to protect U.S. health."