More than 100 scientists from 50 countries overwhelmed the Earth's disappearance of species due to the disappearance of a worrying rate, above all because of human activity, especially the beginning of the disappeared Earth.
But it is not the first one: in the last 500 million years, the planet has lived in five sections, at least half of the living things were erased in an eye, from a geological point of view.
In total, more than 90% of the bodies that swam, flee or brawl disappeared.
Governments and scientists will meet in Paris next week to warn about the state of the planet's ecosystems, just like in the face of climate clashes with human activities. This global assessment is the first in 15 years: 150 experts from 50 countries have worked for three years, bringing together thousands of research on biodiversity.
Its 1,800 page report will be presented on Monday to 130 member states of the Governance Platform for Political Science (IPBES) on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), including Peru.
IPBES is an independent intergovernmental organization created to strengthen the interface between the scientific policy of ecosystem services and ecosystems, in order to achieve biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, long-term human welfare and sustainable development. It is under the protection of four UN organizations: managed by UNEP, UNESCO, FAO and UNDP and UNEP. He has been a member of Peru since 2012, representing José Alvarez Alonso as national representative.
"The summary of the human heritage – human, land, ocean, atmosphere and biosphere – which is changing to unprecedented levels with cascading impacts on local and regional ecosystems". Depending on the report obtained by the AFP.
Drinking water, air, pollinator insects, forests that absorb CO2 … The observation of these resources is so disturbing that the latest Climate Change Governing Committee (IPCC) is concerned. The purpose of limiting greenhouse gas emissions and climate change and their consequences.
The text also tells the warming of the loss of biodiversity; In fact, these two phenomena, especially agricultural practices and deforestation, emphasize a quarter of the emissions of CO2 in the same way. serious damage to ecosystems
The exploitation of land and resources (fishing, hunting) is the main cause of loss of biodiversity, followed by climate change, pollution and invasive species.
As a result, "it is accelerating a rapid and rapid disappearance of the disappearance species," according to the draft. Over 8 million estimated estimates of the planet, of which 5.5 million insects, will be "a million and a million million endangered, many of them in the coming decades."
These projections correspond to the warnings of many scientists who first calculate the "sixth mass extinction" of the Earth, and firstly to the warnings of man in the plan.
The summary of the shortcomings that decried some sources close to the negotiations is not so clear and that there is no such mass of extinction.
"Without a doubt, we are on our way to the sixth disappearance and the first man to be affected", Robert W. Watson, president of IPBES, recently told AFP. "But there is not something that people can easily see."
In order to be aware, we must say that "we are losing insects, forests, charismatic species."
Likewise, "the government and the private sector must seriously tackle biodiversity, as well as warming them," said the scientist.
A year before the expected meeting of the United Nations Biological Diversity Council (COP15) in China, many experts expect the IPBES report to be a key step towards achieving an important agreement signed in Paris in 2015. climate change
The WWF expects COP15 to set "higher goals".
"If we want a sustainable planet in 2050, we must have a very aggressive goal for 2030," said Rebecca Shaw, senior NGO scientist. "In the next 10 years we must change the route with the weather."
But the recovery that leads to major changes in the production and consumption of the system is undergoing great resistance, what will happen to biodiversity?
"It will be even more difficult because they know less about biodiversity problems," says Jean-François Silvain, the French Biodiversity Research Foundation. "You have to be right".
These are five registered mass extinctions
When: about 445 million years ago
Disappearance of species: 60-70%
Possible reason: a short but lively glacial time
At that time, life was mostly in the oceans. Experts believe that glaciers quickly crumble water from the planet due to falling levels of sea levels. They were the most damaged sea organisms like sea bass and seaweed, as well as mollusks, cephalopods and ostracoderms.
When: 360 and 375 million years ago
Disappearing species: up to 75%
Possible cause: depletion of ocean oxygen
Marine organisms are once again affected. Changes in the ocean level, climate change or impacts of an asteroid are considered responsible. One of the theorists calculates that the proliferation of terrestrial plants would lead to anoxia (lack of oxygen) in shallow water. Trilobite, arthropods at the bottom of the ocean, were victims.
When: about 252 million years ago
Species disappearance: 95%
Possible causes: asteroid impacts, volcanic activity
Named as the mother of disappearances, this biological crisis destroyed oceans and lands. All insects are almost completely extinct. Some scientists believe that it had occurred in millions of years, only 200,000 years ago.
The trilobites that survived the first two disappearances completely disappeared, as well as sharks and bones. On the ground, moshops, several thousand-meter-long weed-throwers also disappeared.
When: about 200 million years ago
Species disappearance: 70-80%
Possible reasons: multiple, debate is still open
The mysterious disappearance of the Triassic resulted in numerous terrestrial species, most of them archosaurs, dinosaur ancestors and descendants of modern birds and crocodiles. The vast majority of amphibians also disappeared.
A theory examines the massive lava eruptions by dividing the Pangea (ultimate supercontinent), accompanied by large volumes of carbon dioxide that have climbed climate-warming. Other scientists mentioned asteroids, but no craters were identified.
When: about 66 million years ago
Disappearance of species: 75%
Possible reason: the impact of an asteroid
The discovery of a horrible crater in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico today confirms the hypothesis that the dinosaur birds such as the impact of an asteroid (T-Rex and Triceratops) have been responsible.
But most mammals, turtles, crocodiles, frogs and birds survived, as well as marine life.
Without dinosaurs, mammals increased, homo sapiens was born, a species that had been caused by the sixth extinction.