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Biologists discover long and short chromosomes

Human chromosomes during metaphase. Credit: Steffen Dietzel / Wikipedia

A biologist has found a mechanism that determines the inheritance inherent in chromosomes through the reproductive process. In the discovery, in the journal Nature CommunicationsDetermines the key aspect of hereditary deviation that may cause infertility, miscarriages or birth defects, such as Down Syndrome.

The research explains how to obtain a genetic exchange for short chromosomes. Genetic exchanges are a critical inheritance of the chromosome, but they have a limited supply.

Which short chromosomes guarantees a genetic exchange? Scientists are very interested in the vulnerability of short chromosomes.

"Short chromosomes have a greater risk of genetic defects, and therefore have less material for genetic exchanges," explains Viji Subraman, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of New York and a leading author of paper. "However, these chromosomes make it possible to create a high density of genetic interaction, but it is not understood how short chromosomes have received this aid."

In order to analyze this question, researchers also attended Andreas Hochwagen, Associate Professor of the Department of Biology of the NYU, when he studied the process in legacy: a model organism with many essential processors of human chromosome heirs.

Generally speaking, wide regions close to the ends of long and short chromosomes are the same for high density genetic exchanges. Scientists have constantly labeled these adjacent regions (EARs). Notably, the high density of genetic interaction of EAR is conserved in various organisms, including birds and humans.

Most significant, the researchers have indicated that EARs have a similar size in all chromosomes. This means that the EARs only contain small portions of long chromosomes, but almost complete short chromosomes. This difference causes the density of genetic interactions, specifically in short chromosomes, and therefore forces the cells to not directly measure the length of the chromosome.

Explore more:
Scientists identify that genetic mechanisms inherit female characteristics

Magazine reference:
Nature Communications

University of New York

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