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The 2D crystalline ion cooling allows a large-scale quantum computer



The IBM quantum computer image shows up to five qubits.

The IBM quantum computer image shows up to five qubits.

IBM

When comparing quantum computing to comparing classic computation, I would now dismiss Babbage and Lovelace from the point where they were left, but the points that Bomba or ENIAC did not match. Nowadays we try to achieve the quantum computer that is the best technology. This option is not easy.

The technological possibility of quantum computation is captured by ion. The challenge is to get as much as possible the ions, under our control in our trap. Usually, it consists of ten water, but we need more for calculations. This makes a 2D crystal cooling report to lower almost 200 ions to lower the temperature.

Floating Ioi Template

An ion, for our purposes, an atom is removed from an electron. Because of the lack of electrons, each io io has a positive charge, so that the ions disintegrate. Likewise, a positive charge means that it can be fenced with electrical and magnetic fields. When the ion traps are built properly, the ions are auto-organized by separating the crystalline ions from each other. In quantum computation, these crystals are limited by 1D uniform ion chain.

Long iodine 1D chains are quite hard. The length of the trap becomes the Achilles heel: the ions at the ends of the section are very different in the center. This difference creates difficulties for anyone to calculate.

Enter a 2D crystal. A 2D crystal has all the advantages of a 1D crystal, but it is compact. We have not yet used 2D crystals, but we can not easily cool. If the glass is not cold, then the quantum information stored in the water will be destroyed quickly.

Stuck to the shadow

The physicist helps understand better the ions and atoms, close to absolute zero, helps the icons to physically perform the same way. As shown below, the ions do not have more than their possible energetic situations. In this diagram, we show four possible situations. All the joins are generated in a single energy state. However, since all the ions are moving, the situation is blurred: all ions have energy somewhat different than one still standing ion.

Image of a ion physicist. Each green line indicates the power state. The gypsum ions are central energy, but the energy is blurred by the ions being trapped. "Src =" https://cdn.arstechnica.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/ Image1-640x408.jpg "width =" 640 "height =" 408 "srcset =" https: //cdn.arstechnica .net / wp-content / uploads / 2019/02 / Image1-1280x815.jpg 2x
Enlarge / Image of a ion physicist. Each green line indicates the power state. The gypsum ions are central energy, but the energy is blurred by the ions being trapped.

Chris Lee

Most refrigeration systems use the Doppler effect. The Doppler effect is when the ambulance is approaching when the mermaid is higher when the anchors move away.

For Ioi, Doppler is also a cool thing, he thinks it's the opposite. That ion is no the movement can absorb a certain color of the light. When a photon is absorbed, the ion receives a shot and starts to move away from the light source. As it moves, the light coming from the same stable source is no longer wound to the right wave. The next photo is to mix a bit of color so that Doppler shift can absorb ions. If you make the light source a little blue, the ions get another kick and move a bit faster. Ion is getting hot.

We can reverse this process, as in the bottom, using the color with the same light. Light-sucking children are moving light toward the source: Doppler shift lights up the illumination to absorb it. It throws photon absorption down the ions down.

The joints start at low energy states, but they have low energy supplementation as a result of the movement. These ion absorbs a photon from a laser Doppler and goes to an emotional state. In the end they emit a photon and drop it down. To do this, they will lose some kinetic energy. As a result, the ions cool. "Src =" https://cdn.arstechnica.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/image2-640x400.jpg "width =" 640 "height =" 400 "srcset =" https: //cdn.arstechnica .net / wp-content / uploads / 2019/02 / image2-1280x800.jpg 2x
Enlarge / The joints start at low energy states, but they have low energy supplementation as a result of the movement. These ion absorbs a photon from a laser Doppler and goes to an emotional state. In the end they emit a photon and drop it down. To do this, they will lose some kinetic energy. As a result, the ions cool.

Chris Lee

But Doppler shift will only take you so far. At one point, the heating effects that make up the blue light cause a red-light effect to stop cooling. At this time, we need a mechanism for selectively preventing cold water in order to warm up again.

To play, hide it

Ion hiding is basically done by researchers. The ions that use Izak have a lot of quantum states. Doppler cooling lasers vary between two states. It is one of these two states, therefore, through a pair of lasers to a third state.

As shown in the figure below, lasers are not nearly at water level energy. The combination of brightness and low energy do not distort the energy levels of the ions distorting the Doppler cooling lasers to slow down ultraviolet ions and speed up slow ions. In other words, it allows the choice of hot ions.

Laser additives (purple arrows) distort the energy structure of the ions, one of which splits into two. Therefore, cold ions have energy states with purple laser. These ions encourage two lasers in a lower energy state, because Doppler lasers are not excited. Hot ions are still cooled by Doppler laser by cold enough to remove the lower state by two laser purple. "src =" https://cdn.arstechnica.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/image3-640x409.jpg "width =" 640 "height =" 409 "srcset =" https: //cdn.arstechnica .net / wp-content / uploads / 2019/02 / image3-1280x817.jpg 2x
Enlarge / Laser additives (purple arrows) distort the energy structure of the ions, one of which splits into two. Therefore, cold ions have energy states with purple laser. These ions encourage two lasers in a lower energy state, because Doppler lasers are not excited. Hot ions are still cooled by Doppler laser by cold enough to remove the lower state by two laser purple.

Chris Lee

As a result, the crystal ion is cooled to a lower temperature. How cool Well, the researchers measured the movement of the collective ion (they were called a steady drum) and showed that the percentage percentages of the time were 70% (movement in a given direction). This is a mistake, because, as the researchers say, they should be capable of achieving the least possible amount of 95 points. They do not know why the results do not have theories.

Still, that is, the advances required for the 2D ion crystals ready for wet world quantum computation.

Letters on physical opinion, 2019, DOI: 10.1103 / PhysRevLett.122.053603 (about the DOI)


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