November 27, 2018
Tropical coral reefs threaten complex and ancient bacterial associations, researchers say
Regarding the well-being of coral reefs, scientists who work for many years are responsible for whitening, corrosion-endangering events and maritime ecosystems that support them. In the whiteness, high temperatures or other stressors exclude the crowns SymbiodiniumBeneficial, brightly colored microbes, usually, they shared excessive energy and nutrients with corals. Bleaching ultimately prevents the entire ecosystem of reefs.
But in the last two decades, scientists have realized that microorganisms are also critical for health of corals, including coral surfaces and bacteria living in tissues. These bacteria make up the corala microbiomy. High temperatures – even under the blockage threshold – can corrupt microbial corals, leaving corals to injure diseases.
But scientists lack complete data about 1,500 bacteria that contain more than 1,500 species of coral species. Thanks to the Global Coral Microbiome Project, it has been collaborating with Washington Bothell University (Pennsylvania State University) and Oregon State University. The group is studying the diversity of bacteria in corals and has changed over time.
In the first survey of the healthy poll, the magazine was published on November 22 Nature Communications, the group thinks that the coral bacteria have a surprisingly diverse range, and coral bodies can collect different sections from single bacterial communities.
"This project is the most complete endeavor to identify the types of bacteria in different tropical coral groups, how bacterial types can be different in the anatomy of corals, and that the symbiotic relationship between corals and bacteria has changed the evolution of the coral," said senior and director Jesse Zaneveld, UW Bothell- Assistant Professor of Biological Sciences.
Their findings show a fairly healthy coral microbial in different coral species, and corals are formed and evolve microbial. To understand the microbioma, corals will cause heat waves and diseases.
"Within our gut, bacteria help digestion and protect us from pathogens, normal bacteria-related corals help protect food and protect against illness," said Zaneveld.
With the collaboration of the James Cook University scientists and the Australian Marine Science Institute, he collected 696 small roofs from 236 healthy corals, in the Great Barrier Reef. The researchers took samples of three hundred coral samples: calcium carbonate, soft inner tissue and skeleton of the external stem of the stem. The samples from the corals have been seen in several cases in millions of years.
The researchers sequenced the bacterial sequencing in microbial health, identifying bacterial types for each species of coral and tissue. They have mutages, bones and soft tissues in different microbial communities, and the richness and diversity of bacterial species have been very different in the tissues. In general, the skeleton had the highest bacterial diversity. They were waiting for the mucus that recaptures the crown and take on a lot of microbiomas. Instead, the microbial mucus was often different.
The group also found that coral species are the most different in the composition of microbial tissues. While microbial mucus also differentiated between coral species, environmental factors also had a great influence on location, temperature and depth. The main differences between coral species were raised by uncertainties about coral and microbial age, and have changed over time.
The researchers found that remote corals were very different from microbials. The corals that were nearer were usually similar to microbes. This model, known as phylosymbiosis, was one of the strongest microbial corrosion skeletons. The group found that there were many coral bacteria associations, and at least four types of bacteria were grouped with choral groups for millions of years.
Now, researchers hope to gather more data about healthy coral microbiomas, to find out about some species of microbial species and learn how to create and maintain the same coral tissues.
"We want to understand the factors such as the different factors such as the coronary immune system or the environment, to design microbicides," said Zaneveld. "These responses may help to understand how microbial affects the health of the coral and emphasizes corals."
Coral stones have been surrounded by more than 400 million years of age, and current coral reefs provide medicines to save millions of lives and port life. Exacerbations related to climate change are already recorded as blockage levels. But corals will only save the reefs from investigating microbes alone, Zaneveld said.
"The Great Barrier Reef is roughly roughly in Washington state unfortunately two times – so probably there is no drug or microbial advantage that we can add water to save it," said Zaneveld. "But we can keep coral reefs in the fight against climate change."
Only the main causes for the decline of the coral reefs are anticipated – those that reduce the pollution and excessive levels of climate change and reduce food contamination – ultimately contributes to corals.
"And if we do, we can also store the most intricate bacteria that we have developed over millions of years, and this would be a lie to the key to new medications that we lost in the world forever," said Zaneveld.
The main authors of the paper are: F. Joseph Pollock, Pennsylvania State University and Ryan McMinds, Oregon State University. The coordinators are Styles Smith and Mónica Medina at Pennsylvania State University; David Bourne at the James Cook University and the Australian Institute of Marine Science; Bette Willis at James Cook University; and Rebecca Vega Thurber, from Oregon State University. Funded by the National Science Research Foundation.
For more information, contact Zaneveld at 425-352-3789 or [email protected]
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