It is not the most common way of announcing advances in world-renowned scientists, but on Monday, Jiankui published a video that created the first baby in the world using the powerful technique called CRISPR. Previously, he talked to Associated Press about his research, and the first genomes released by men were twin births.
The report joined the scientific community with concern and skepticism. The experiment is a modified genome of embryos produced by IVF; Genetic changes will be passed to future generations. In addition, most CRISPR experts are not convinced that technology is ready or safe to treat humans.
"Considering the initial state of the genome editing technology, I bet on embryonic posting … we have created the first considerations that we consider to be security-critical," Feng Zhang, one of the co-discoverers. CRISPR and MIT and the Harvard Central Institute said in a statement that they responded to the report. "This is not a dangerous thing I can only see, but I also question the lack of transparency about this trial."
In 2015, tech-savvy scientists, including Zhang and another co-discoverer, Jennifer Doudna, at the University of California, Berkeley, underlined the following: CRISPR through human embryos, security and long-term effects Technology was very uncertain . Researchers are using CRISPR to support the development of treatments that cause cells that do not pass through the next generation, eg egg and sperm, but that further research is needed to change the CRISPR genome that can be done from generation to generation.
While in the United States, while editing the DNA of human embryos, in 2017, an International Nationwide Academy of Sciences calls for a moratorium on human rights violations and CRISPR trials requiring human embryo testing through rigorous control to treat rare genetic diseases can not be directed in any other way. U.K. In the year, civil servants approved the CRISPR human embryos 2016, but embryos were not transplanted to create a pregnancy. These trials destroy the embryos after a week, as technology security is clear.
On the other hand, apparently, it has jumped to create the first babies born in the CRISPR edition. The Faculty of Science and Technology at the Southern University is in Shenzhen, China, but when it was published in response to videos it said that the university will pay in February 2018 in January 2021; The officials did not leave reason.
"The university has had a great impact on this event and it will start immediately for the immediate clarification of Dr. Jiankui," officials said. "Research went outside the campus and was not sent to the University or to the Department [to which He belongs]"Expression in the university" believes that the behavior of Dr. Jiankui himself has been damaged by CRISPR / Cas9 because of the behavior of human embryos due to academic defects and behavioral codes. The University will call international experts to form an independent commission to investigate this event and publish results to the public. "
CRISPR was first described in 2012, scientists provide the most accurate and effective way of editing the human genome, either by mutations or genes, to solve the same genome or to enable researchers to incorporate a new genetic material to genetic diseases. . But the research suggests that controlling the human CRISPR cells continues to be a challenge; In some cases, CRISPR may cut off inappropriate parts of the genome.
In his promotional video, he directed the CCR5 gene that helps the HIV virus to penetrate human healthy cells. He worked with seven heterosexual couples, with a male partner with HIV positive and women were negative HIV. When couples created embryos through the IVF, it used CRISPR to cut the CCR5 gene, with fewer embryos being detrimental to HIV infection. According to 22 embryos, 16 showed signs of successful CRISPR editing and 11 were established, along with twin pregnant girls born in November creating a single pregnancy. According to one of the Bikers, the sign has inherited two copies of the CCR5 gene (one of their mother and father), and a twin version of the other genres changed.
The so-called mosaicism, some but not all of the embryonic cells are changing, since in this case, the girl should not be fully protected by her HIV infection, as her sister. That is why the researchers create doubts about the report. Usually, scientific milestones are published in the scientific journal, according to the researchers' data. Without this documentation, it is impossible to verify that the girls successfully show CRISPR successful editing or not.
When he founded two companies based on his studies, his findings envision presenting the Gomongo Genome Editing at the Second International Summit, which undoubtedly will be the most important among gene-editing scientists.