Friday , August 19 2022

World's first gene-edited babies created in China, claims scientists | Science


A scientist in China has created the world's first genetically engineered baby, the first powerful and controversial physician.

If true, science and ethics would be a profound leap. This type of genetics is prohibited in most countries, as a technology that is still experimental, and may lead to changes in DNA to future generations, which may have previously unanticipated effects.

The senior scientists believe that there are no excessive attempts, and they report some Chinese reports as human experiments.

He Jiankui, a scientist and technology-based scientist, changes embryos from emission through fertility treatments as a result of pregnancy. He said that his goal was not to cure or prevent hereditary illness, but to allow a few people to be naturally: ability to face future HIV infections.

To make Crispr, or to give his or her full name, Crispr-Cas9, scientists can edit specific purposes and correct genomes. CrisPR is a guiding molecule created by RNA to provide a specific area for double stranded ADN. The RNA molecule is linked to Cas9, a bacterial enzyme that functions as a "molecular gland" to determine the DNA cutting at the point. This allows scientists to cut, paste and erase letters of genetic code.

He told them that their parents identified or interviewed, and did not know where they lived or where they did. He has no assertions of his own affirmation, nor has he been published in a journal, as will be analyzed by other experts.

On Monday in Hong Kong, one of the organizers of the international conference on genes revealed that it will start on Tuesday and in previous interviews.

"I feel a strong responsibility, it's not the first to do it, but it's an example," he said. "Society will decide on the next" that this science is forbidden or prohibited.

Some scientists were amazed to hear the claim and strongly condemned it. "It is impossible … the human experiment is not morally or ethically defensible," said Dr. Kiran Musunuru, an expert gene-editor at the University of Pennsylvania.

"If this is true, this experiment is horrible," said Julian Savulescu of Practical Ethics at Oxford University. "The embryos were healthy. Diseases not known. Gene editing is the same as experimental and is still linked to off-target mutations, including genetic problems as soon as possible, including cancer development."

"HIV is one of the most effective ways of preventing healthy people, for example, sexually protected, if effective treatments are hired. This experiment shows normal healthy children the risk of editing genes without real real benefits. They would punish them in other places in the world, that is, punishment."

In recent years, scientists have easily found genes to edit DNA branches that govern the body. The tool, Crispr-Cas9, allows the supply or disable of a possible DNA DNA operation.

At least one of the deadly diseases has been treated to treat adults, and the changes are limited to that person. If sperm, egg or embryo are edited, changes could be inherited.

He studied at Rice and Stanford University at the home of his grandparents, at the Chinese Science and Technology Southern University, and had two genetic companies.

Mum, monkeys and human embryos practiced for several years, and he has sought patents in methods. He chose the embryo of the genotype of the HIV because they are the main problems in China. Disables a gene called CCR5, a virus that causes HIV, which forms a protein portal that allows access to a cell.

All men in the project had HIV and not all women, but the gene edition did not prevent the risk of transmission, he said. Parents tightened their standard infections with their infections, and there are easy ways to keep children infected with the genes. Instead, the appeal is that the couples affected by the HIV may have a chance to be a child.

Gene editing took place in vitro fertilization. First, to separate the sperm from the semen to "bury" the sperm so that it can bury HIV. The sole sperm was placed in one egg to create the embryo. Then the gene editing tool was added. When the embryos were three to five days, some cells were deleted and they were checked in the edition. The couple can choose whether to use edited or unedited embryo for pregnancy attempts. In total, there were 22 out of 16 embitions, and 11 embryos used six attempts at the implant before getting twin pregnancies, he said.

The attempts suggest that the two twins have changed the two copies of the virus and the other twins have changed, proving that they did not damage other genes, he said. People with only one copy of the gene can still get HIV.

Musunurus said that if the edition worked well, the normal CCR5 genes did not face too much risk of dying from other viruses (such as the West Nile) and the flu. There are many ways to prevent HIV infection and if it is treated, other health risks are a concern.

There are also questions about what he has said in the future. He made an official note about his work, when he said it was on November 8. It is not clear, the participants understood the purpose and the potential risks and benefits; For example, a permit form for project aid vaccine development program.

He said that he clearly stated the goals and told participants that the edition of embryonic genes was never tried and risked. He also said that he would provide insurance coverage for any child and medical follow-up plan that the children under 18 years of age have completed and the longer they agree when they are older.

"I think they will have help from families and children," he said. If it causes unwanted side effects or harm, "I feel that I feel pain and it will be my responsibility."

Dr. Sarah Chan, of the University of Edinburgh's bioethics, said that if the experiment was "a serious ethical concern".

"Whether or not the veracity of these reports is final or not, is that irresponsible and non-ethical creation of the maximum debate and shock value designed by these claims," ​​he said.

"The claim made by the people in charge of the investigation is that the baby has a genome for the immunological HIV, the risk of life in HIV is very small, there are other means of prevention and it is no longer an incurable and inevitable disease, which is a risk that these children will not endanger this marginal risk da "picture.

Source link